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Nur 102 Oxygenation > Oxygenation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Oxygenation Deck (31)
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What is ventilation?

The movement of air in and out of the lungs

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What is diffusion?

The movement of gases between air spaces and the bloodstream.

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What is respiration?

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism.

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What is perfusion?

The movement of blood into and out of the lungs to the organs and tissues of the body.

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What is hypoxia?

Inadequate tissue oxygenation with a deficiency in oxygen delivery or oxygen utilization at the cellular level.

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What are signs and symptoms of hypoxia?

Tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion

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What are some causes of hypoxia?

-Diminished concentration of inspired oxygen, ex. Airway obstruction
-COPD
-Impaired ventilation
-Shock, poor tissue perfusion w. Oxygenated blood

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What is hypoxemia?

An abnormal deficiency in the concentration of oxygen in arterial blood, a low partial pressure of oxygen.

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What are symptoms of hypoxemia?

-Pallor
-Cyanosis
-Confusion
-Anxiety
-Restlessness
-Diaphoresis
-Blurred or tunnel vision
-Nausea/vomiting

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What are causes of hypoxemia?

-Pneumonia
-Atelectasis
-Cardiac arrhythmias

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What is hypoventilation?

Occurs when ventilation is inadequate to meet the oxygen demands of the body or to eliminate carbon dioxide.

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What does hypoventilation lead to?

-Hypoxia or hypercapnia
-arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) level greater than 45mmHg
-respiratory acidosis

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What is hyperventilation?

An increase in respiratory rate, resulting in excessive amounts of carbon dioxide elimination.

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What does hyperventilation lead to?

Decreased PaCO2 or hypocapnia
Respiratory alkalosis.

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What is cardiac output?

Amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute.

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What is cardiac index?

Measure of adequacy of the cardiac output: cardiac index equals cardiac output divided by patients body surface area

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What is stroke volume?

Amount of blood ejected from the ventricle with each contraction. Normal range: 50-75mL per contraction

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What is preload?

Amount of blood in the ventricles at end diastole.

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What is afterload?

Resistance of the ejection of blood from the left ventricle.

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What is myocardial contractility?

The ability of the heart to squeeze blood from the ventricles and prepare for the next contraction.

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Decreased cardiac output

Failure of the myocardium to eject sufficient blood volume to the systemic and pulmonary circulations results in heart failure.

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Myocardial ischemia

Happens when the coronary artery does not supply sufficient blood to the heart muscle.

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Myocardial infarction

When decreased myocardial blood perfusion is extensive or perfusion is completely blocked , the tissue becomes necrotic.

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Myocardial infarction clinical symptoms

-Severe or crushing chest pain
-Jaw pain
-Left arm pain
-hypotension

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Impaired valvular function

An acquired or congenital disorder of a cardiac valve characterized by stenosis, which results in obstructive blood flow, or valvular degeneration and regurgitation.

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Left sided heart failure

Characterized by impaired functioning of the left ventricle. Usually caused by increased preload or afterload.

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Signs of left sided heart failure

-Pulmonary congestion
-Crackles during auscultation
-Fatigue
-dyspnea
-orthopnea

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Right sided heart failure

Results from impaired functioning of the right ventricle, which is typically caused by pulmonary disease or pulmonary hypertension.

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Right sided heart failure signs

-distended jugular veins
-peripheral edema

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Hypovolemia

Reduced circulating blood volume resulting from extra cellular fluid losses such as in shock or severe dehydration.

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Dysrhythmia

A disturbance in electrical impulse of the heart rhythm. Any rhythm not generated at the SA node is classified as a dysrythmia.