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Flashcards in P1 Part B Deck (50)
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1

List four non renewable energy resources

Coal
Oil
Natural gas
Nuclear power

2

What makes these resources non-renewable and why do people believe we should be moving away from using them?

They will all run out one day and they damage the environment.

3

List as many renewable energy sources you can think of (8)

Wind
Waves/Tides
Solar
Hydroelectric
Geothermal
Food
Biofuels

4

What is the process that occurs in a typical power station (4 main steps)?

- Fossil fuel is burnt to convert stored chemical energy into thermal energy
- This energy is used to heat water (or air) and produce steam
- The steam turns a turbine, converting thermal energy into kinetic
- The turbine is connected to a generator that converts kinetic to electrical energy

5

How is wind power harnessed?

By using lots of wind turbines, their rotating blades turn an internal generator (kinetic to electrical energy)

6

How many wind turbines would it take to produce the same amount of energy as a regular coal burning power station?

1500

7

What are the pros (4) and cons (3) of using solar power

Pros
- Energy is free after point of installation
- They are a reliable energy source (in the daytime), even in cloudy countries
- It doesn't pollute it's surroundings
- Solar power isn't going to run out (until the sun dies)

Cons
- Initial costs can be high
- It is very expensive and not practical to connect solar cells to the National Grid
- Many people believe solar cells are unsightly

8

Define hydroelectric power

The conversion of kinetic energy from flowing water into electricity, through the use of turbines and generators

9

List some advantages (3) and disadvantages (4) of using biofuel

Advantages
- They produce less carbon dioxide than regular fossil fuels
- Provide more income for farmers
- Could reduce fuel prices if they brought competition to the market

Disadvantages
- Ethical concerns: plants could be used to feed
- More manual labour is necessary
- They are not totally carbon-neutral
- Large areas of forest are cleared to make room for crops

10

How does a nuclear power station work?

Just the same as a regular fossil-fuel burning power station, other than the fact that nuclear fission (of plutonium or uranium) is what creates the heat to make the steam that drives the turbines

11

Non renewable energy sources are linked to environmental issues, list as many of these as you can (6)

- CO2 emissions (greenhouse gas affect)
- Burning coal and oil produces sulfur dioxide - causes acid rain
- Coal mining destroys the landscape (particularly open-cast)
- Oil spillages can kill animals and destroy habitats
- Nuclear waste is dangerous and difficult to dispose of
- Nuclear power carries the risk of a disaster (eg. Chernobyl in 1986)

12

What does CCS stand for and what is it?

Carbon capture and storage

CO2 emissions are collected from power stations before they are released into the atmosphere, it can be pumped into empty gas/oil fields.

13

What is the National grid?

A network of pylons and cables that covers the whole of Britain and allows electricity to be generated and distributed anywhere on the grid.

14

Why doe the National grid use high voltage rather than high current when transporting electricity?

High current creates a lot of waste energy (in the form of heat).

15

What is the purpose of step-up and step-down transformers?

Step up transformers get the voltage high enough (400,000V) to be transported efficiently, this must then be 'stepped down' to a safe voltage that is not dangerous to consumers.

16

Pros (4) and cons (4) of overhead cables?

Pros
- Low set up cost
- Easy to access
- Easy to set up
- Minimal disturbance to land

Cons
- Lots of maintenance necessary
- Unsightly
- Affected by weather
- Less reliable than underground cables

Now consider the pros and cons of underground cables in comparison.

17

What do waves do?

Transfer energy from one place to another without transferring matter

18

Define the amplitude of a wave

The displacement from the rest position to the crest

19

What is wavelength?

The length of a full cycle of waves (eg. from crest to crest)

20

What is frequency and in what unit is it given?

Frequency is the number of waves passing a certain point per second. It is measured in Hertz (Hz).

1 Hz is one wave per second.

21

What are transverse wave vibrations like?

They are perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer of the wave.

22

What are longitudinal wave vibrations like?

They work in the same direction as the energy transfer of the wave.

23

Name three types of wave that are longitudinal

Sound
Ultrasound
Seismic

(Light and electro magnetic waves are transverse)

24

What is the formula for wave speed and what units are used?

Wave speed = frequency x wavelength

m/s = hZ x m

25

How do we rely on wave reflection?

It allows us to see objects. Light bounces off of them into our eyes.

26

What is the law of reflection?

Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection

27

What happens to sound waves and light waves when they pass across the boundary between two substances with different densities, such as air and glass?

They change speed, this causes them to change direction and this effect is called refraction.

28

At what angle does refraction occur?

Any other than normal incidence (90 degrees) .

29

Which technology relies on total internal reflection?

Fibre optics

30

What is diffraction?

The process by which waves 'spread out' once they have passed through a gap or obstacle.