Flashcards in P12- Hypertension, thrombosis, embolism , Infarction Deck (67)
what is systole?
left ventricular contraction
what is diastole?
left ventricular relaxation
what is blood pressure?
cardiac output x peripheral resistance
what contributes to cardiac output?
Name peripheral resistance constrictors.
Angiotensin II , Catecholamines
Name peripheral resistance dilators.
what is hypertension?
‘a disorder in which the level of sustained arterial pressure is higher than expected for the age, sex, and race of the individual’
what is hypertension synonymous with?
systemic arterial hypertension
what is high blood pressure ?
blood pressure of >140/90 mmHg consistently
Does hypertension affect ages specifically?
-Children, adolescent, adult, 3rd decade
what is normal variation of hypertension?
Normal variation in individuals at different times of day- lowest levels during sleep
when does BP increase?
BP increases on standing up, on exercise and on exposure to cold and emotion
who is at risk of permanent hypertension -labile hypertension?
Individuals with a larger than normal pressure rise in response to these stimuli
How is hypertension monitored?
what are the 2 types of classifications of hypertension?
-according to cause (Aetiological)
-according to consequences (Clinicopathological)
what are the 2 types of "according to cause" hypertension?
what are the 2 types of "according to consequences" hypertension?
what are 95% of cases?
no detectable cause- “primary” or “essential” hypertension
Give some causes of primary hypertension?
• Interplay of genetic and environmental factors
• Race, Stress, diet (salt, animal fats), alocohol intake, intrauterine life, exercise
what is secondary hypertension?
renal disease, endocrine disorders, aortic disease (Coarcta(on of the aorta ‐ congenital narrowing of segments of the aorta)
what are endocrine causes of hypertension?
-Adrenal gland hyperfunction / tumours
-Conn’s syndrome - excess Aldosterone
-Cushing’s syndrome - excess corticosteroid
-Phaeochromocytoma - excess noradrenaline
what is prognosis of patients with hypertension is related to?
height and rate of pressure rise
what is benign hypertension?
prognosis is measured in decades
what is malignant hypertension?
accelerated form fatal within 2 yrs if untreated
what can benign hypertension cause?
• Iscahemic Heart disease
• Heart Failure
• Acceleration of Renal Disease
• Malignant Hypertension
what are the symptoms of hypertension?
How is bonging hypertension often detected ?
• Often detected in middle age during routine checkup
• BP rises slowly over many years
what does benign hypertension affect?
• Affects heart and arteries of all sizes
• Main target organs are heart, brain and kidneys
what is the most common complication of benign hypertension?
Ischaemic heart disease is most common complication (insufficient blood supply to the myocardium to meet functional demand)