P12- Hypertension, thrombosis, embolism , Infarction Flashcards Preview

Pathology > P12- Hypertension, thrombosis, embolism , Infarction > Flashcards

Flashcards in P12- Hypertension, thrombosis, embolism , Infarction Deck (67)
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1

what is systole?

left ventricular contraction

2

what is diastole?

left ventricular relaxation

3

what is blood pressure?

cardiac output x peripheral resistance

4

what contributes to cardiac output?

-heart rate
-contractility
-blood volume

5

Name peripheral resistance constrictors.

Angiotensin II , Catecholamines

6

Name peripheral resistance dilators.

Nitric oxide,
Prostaglandins

7

what is hypertension?

‘a disorder in which the level of sustained arterial pressure is higher than expected for the age, sex, and race of the individual’

8

what is hypertension synonymous with?

systemic arterial hypertension

9

what is high blood pressure ?

blood pressure of >140/90 mmHg consistently

10

Does hypertension affect ages specifically?

-NB age
-Children, adolescent, adult, 3rd decade

11

what is normal variation of hypertension?

Normal variation in individuals at different times of day- lowest levels during sleep

12

when does BP increase?

BP increases on standing up, on exercise and on exposure to cold and emotion

13

who is at risk of permanent hypertension -labile hypertension?

Individuals with a larger than normal pressure rise in response to these stimuli

14

How is hypertension monitored?

24 hr

15

what are the 2 types of classifications of hypertension?

-according to cause (Aetiological)
-according to consequences (Clinicopathological)

16

what are the 2 types of "according to cause" hypertension?

-primary
-secondary

17

what are the 2 types of "according to consequences" hypertension?

-benign
-malignant

18

what are 95% of cases?

no detectable cause- “primary” or “essential” hypertension

19

Give some causes of primary hypertension?

• Interplay of genetic and environmental factors
• Race, Stress, diet (salt, animal fats), alocohol intake, intrauterine life, exercise

20

what is secondary hypertension?

renal disease, endocrine disorders, aortic disease (Coarcta(on of the aorta ‐ congenital narrowing of segments of the aorta)

21

what are endocrine causes of hypertension?

-Adrenal gland hyperfunction / tumours
-Conn’s syndrome - excess Aldosterone
-Cushing’s syndrome - excess corticosteroid
-Phaeochromocytoma - excess noradrenaline

22

what is prognosis of patients with hypertension is related to?

height and rate of pressure rise

23

what is benign hypertension?

prognosis is measured in decades

24

what is malignant hypertension?

accelerated form fatal within 2 yrs if untreated

25

what can benign hypertension cause?

• Iscahemic Heart disease
• Heart Failure
• Stroke
• Acceleration of Renal Disease
• Malignant Hypertension

26

what are the symptoms of hypertension?

usually asymptomatic

27

How is bonging hypertension often detected ?

• Often detected in middle age during routine checkup
• BP rises slowly over many years

28

what does benign hypertension affect?

• Affects heart and arteries of all sizes
• Main target organs are heart, brain and kidneys

29

what is the most common complication of benign hypertension?

Ischaemic heart disease is most common complication (insufficient blood supply to the myocardium to meet functional demand)

30

what effect does benign hypertension have on the cardiovascular system?

• Increased pressure causes hypertrophy of the arteries and heart
• Resistance arteries have thicker walls and more narrow lumina
• Longstanding hypertension aggravates atherosclerosis and contributes to development and rupture of aneurysms and dissections