P3 - Forces For Transport Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in P3 - Forces For Transport Deck (74):
1

What does the gradient represent on a distance-time graph?

Speed

2

What does the flat section show on a distance-time graph?

Where it has stopped

3

What do the steeper sections of a distance-time graph represent?

Steeper gradient, faster it's going.

4

What do downhill sections of distance-time graphs show?

(negative gradient) means changed direction and coming back towards starting point.

5

What do curves in distance-time graphs represent?

Acceleration or deceleration - steepening curve means speeding up. Levelling off curve means slowing down.

6

What is acceleration?

How quickly speed is changing - can change direction and it would be accelerating (with or without changing speed).

7

What does the gradient represent on a speed-time graph?

Acceleration

8

What do the flat sections of a speed-time graph represent?

Steady speed.

9

What does a steep gradient mean on a speed-time graph?

Steeper gradient, greater acceleration/deceleration.

10

What do uphill (/) sections of a speed-time graph represent?

Acceleration

11

What do the downhill sections of a distance-time graph represent?

Deceleration

12

What is the area under any section of a speed-time graph?

Distance travelled in that time interval.

13

What does a curve mean in a speed-time graph?

Non-uniform/changing acceleration or deceleration.

14

What are the 6 different forces (we need to know for GCSE)?

Gravity/weight, reaction force (from a surface, acts upwards), Thrust/push/pull, drag/air resistance or friction, lift and tension.

15

What causes acceleration?

Overalll resultant unbalanced force. Bigger unbalanced force, greater acceleration.

16

What are the 3 main ways friction occurs?

Between solid surfaces which are gripping. Between solid surfaces that are sliding past each other. Resistance or drag from fluids (liquids or gases).

17

What happens to friction in fluids?

Friction/Drag always increases with speed.

18

What is terminal speed?

When object sets off, have much more force accelerating than resistance. As speed increases, resistance increases. Acceleration gradually decreases until resistance is equal to accelerating force - balanced.

19

What happens if the forces are unbalanced?

Object will accelerate in direction of force. Size of acceleration is decided by: F=ma (Newton's 2nd Law of Motion)

20

What factors affect thinking distance?

How fast you're going, and how tired you are or if you have consumed drugs, alcohol and have distractions or a lack of concentration.

21

What factors affect braking distance?

How fast you're going, how heavy vehicle is, how good brakes are, and how good grip is.

22

What affects grip (tyres)?

Road surface, weather - wet or icy makes it more slippery, tyres themselves (minimum tread depth is 1.6mm).

23

What is aquaplacing?

Skidding very easily or riding on a layer of water because of bald tyres.

24

What happens to braking distance as speed doubles?

Relationship is squared so double speed would mean braking distance increases 4 fold (2²)

25

How crumple zones reduces forces in a crash?

They crumple and change shape on impact, increasing time taken for the car to stop.

26

What happens if the forces on an object are balanced?

It will keep moving at same speed in same direction.

27

How do seat belts reduces forces in a crash?

Belt stretches slightly, increasing time taken for wearer to stop. Reduces forces acting on chest. Need replacing after crash.

28

How do air bags help in a crash?

They slow you down more gradually.

29

What does the ABS do?

Helps drivers keep control of steering when braking hard. Ordinary brakes lock wheels which causes skidding but ABS automatically pump on and off to stop wheels locking. Also give car shorter braking distance which could prevent collision.

30

What is gravitational potential energy?

Energy that something has because of its height above ground. Energy used to raise it is 'stored', and can be changed to kinetic energy if it falls.

31

What is kinetic energy?

Energy it has when moving. Depends on both mass and speed. Greater mass, faster it's going (bigger KE).

32

What is power?

Measure of how quickly work is being done. Not necessarily force exerted but time taken (shorter = more powerful)

33

What is fuel consumption?

Usually stated as distance travelled using a certain amount of fuel. Often given as miles per gallon (mpg) or litres per 100km.

34

What does a low mpg value mean?

High fuel consumption - won't travel far on a gallon of fuel.

35

What does fuel consumption depend on?

E.g. size of engine, how car is driven, mass of car, speed it's driven, road conditions.

36

Why do some cars use biofuels?

Made from plants and organic waste - renewable. Give out CO₂ but it is also taken in by growing plants - no overall increase. Doesn’t produce as much other pollution but producing car still produces pollution.

37

What are the drawbacks of solar powered/hybrid cars?

Expensive to make and buy, pollution created in production, limited performance at minute.

38

Speed

What does the gradient represent on a distance-time graph?

39

Where it has stopped

What does the flat section show on a distance-time graph?

40

Steeper gradient, faster it's going.

What do the steeper sections of a distance-time graph represent?

41

(negative gradient) means changed direction and coming back towards starting point.

What do downhill sections of distance-time graphs show?

42

Acceleration or deceleration - steepening curve means speeding up. Levelling off curve means slowing down.

What do curves in distance-time graphs represent?

43

How quickly speed is changing - can change direction and it would be accelerating (with or without changing speed).

What is acceleration?

44

Acceleration

What does the gradient represent on a speed-time graph?

45

Steady speed.

What do the flat sections of a speed-time graph represent?

46

Steeper gradient, greater acceleration/deceleration.

What does a steep gradient mean on a speed-time graph?

47

Acceleration

What do uphill (/) sections of a speed-time graph represent?

48

Deceleration

What do the downhill sections of a distance-time graph represent?

49

Distance travelled in that time interval.

What is the area under any section of a speed-time graph?

50

Non-uniform/changing acceleration or deceleration.

What does a curve mean in a speed-time graph?

51

Gravity/weight, reaction force (from a surface, acts upwards), Thrust/push/pull, drag/air resistance or friction, lift and tension.

What are the 6 different forces (we need to know for GCSE)?

52

Overalll resultant unbalanced force. Bigger unbalanced force, greater acceleration.

What causes acceleration?

53

Between solid surfaces which are gripping. Between solid surfaces that are sliding past each other. Resistance or drag from fluids (liquids or gases).

What are the 3 main ways friction occurs?

54

Friction/Drag always increases with speed.

What happens to friction in fluids?

55

When object sets off, have much more force accelerating than resistance. As speed increases, resistance increases. Acceleration gradually decreases until resistance is equal to accelerating force - balanced.

What is terminal speed?

56

Object will accelerate in direction of force. Size of acceleration is decided by: F=ma (Newton's 2nd Law of Motion)

What happens if the forces are unbalanced?

57

How fast you're going, and how tired you are or if you have consumed drugs, alcohol and have distractions or a lack of concentration.

What factors affect thinking distance?

58

How fast you're going, how heavy vehicle is, how good brakes are, and how good grip is.

What factors affect braking distance?

59

Road surface, weather - wet or icy makes it more slippery, tyres themselves (minimum tread depth is 1.6mm).

What affects grip (tyres)?

60

Skidding very easily or riding on a layer of water because of bald tyres.

What is aquaplacing?

61

Relationship is squared so double speed would mean braking distance increases 4 fold (2²)

What happens to braking distance as speed doubles?

62

They crumple and change shape on impact, increasing time taken for the car to stop.

How crumple zones reduces forces in a crash?

63

It will keep moving at same speed in same direction.

What happens if the forces on an object are balanced?

64

Belt stretches slightly, increasing time taken for wearer to stop. Reduces forces acting on chest. Need replacing after crash.

How do seat belts reduces forces in a crash?

65

They slow you down more gradually.

How do air bags help in a crash?

66

Helps drivers keep control of steering when braking hard. Ordinary brakes lock wheels which causes skidding but ABS automatically pump on and off to stop wheels locking. Also give car shorter braking distance which could prevent collision.

What does the ABS do?

67

Energy that something has because of its height above ground. Energy used to raise it is 'stored', and can be changed to kinetic energy if it falls.

What is gravitational potential energy?

68

Energy it has when moving. Depends on both mass and speed. Greater mass, faster it's going (bigger KE).

What is kinetic energy?

69

Measure of how quickly work is being done. Not necessarily force exerted but time taken (shorter = more powerful)

What is power?

70

Usually stated as distance travelled using a certain amount of fuel. Often given as miles per gallon (mpg) or litres per 100km.

What is fuel consumption?

71

High fuel consumption - won't travel far on a gallon of fuel.

What does a low mpg value mean?

72

E.g. size of engine, how car is driven, mass of car, speed it's driven, road conditions.

What does fuel consumption depend on?

73

Made from plants and organic waste - renewable. Give out CO₂ but it is also taken in by growing plants - no overall increase. Doesn’t produce as much other pollution but producing car still produces pollution.

Why do some cars use biofuels?

74

Expensive to make and buy, pollution created in production, limited performance at minute.

What are the drawbacks of solar powered/hybrid cars?