Flashcards in Paediatrics Deck (22):
What is respiratory distress?
Severe difficulty in acieving adequate oxygenation in spite of significant efforts to breath
What is the likeliest reason for respiratory distress in a premature baby?
Respiratory distress syndrome
How can respiratory distress syndrome be prevented in premature babies?
They can be given surfactant prophylactically into their lungs
What is surfactant made of?
Phosopholipid and apoproteins
When is surfactant produced in pregnancy?
What is atelectasis?
Partial collapse of the lung
What is chronic lung disease?
A condition in babies where their lungs have been damage meaning they require oxygen beyond 36 weeks corrected gestation plus evidence of pulmonary parenchymal disease on CXR (generally follows RDS/ high oxygen flow) - usually weined off oxygen by 1 year (due to lungs growing and repairing)
How is chronic lung disease prevented?
Less forceful ventilation used
What is a problem associated with diaphragmatic hernias?
Pulmonary hypoplasia - the gut moves into the chest cavity and prevents the lungs from developing properly
Treatment of diaphragmatic hernia?
Avoid bagging baby as puts air into stomach which presses on lung moreResp. supportSurgery
what causes a newborn infant to present with raised immune-reactive trypsin levels on neonatal screening who is found to be homozygous for the delta F508 deletion?
What is immotile cilia syndrome?
Immotile cilia syndrome (ICS) is an autosomal recessive disease with extensive genetic heterogeneity characterized by abnormal ciliary motion and impaired mucociliary clearance.
What is Kartagner triad?
situs inversus chronic sinusitis and/or nasal polyposisbronchiectasis(type of immotile cilia syndrome)
What is the next step if a patient has a high probability of having asthma?
What effect does smoking have on a child?
Low birthweightLoss of pregnancyPerinatal mortality increasedGlue earCarcinogenicIncreased likelihood of asthma attack
What pathogen causes RSV?
What type of babies have a higher risk of bronchiolitis? (3)
Younger babiesEx premature babiesFamily of smokers
What causes pneumonia in neonates? (4)
Group B strep.E. coliKlebsiellaStaph aureus
What causes pneumonia in infants? (2)
What causes pneumonia in school aged children? (6)
Strep pneunmoniaeStaph aureus Group A StrepBordatellaMycoplasmaLegionella
What is Laryngomalacia?
the most common cause of stridor in infancy, in which the soft, immature cartilage of the upper larynx collapses inward during inhalation, causing airway obstruction