Flashcards in Anatomy 1 - Anatomy of Breathing Deck (55)
What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract?
Right and left nasal cavitiesoral cavityNas-, oro- and laryngo- pharynxlarynx
What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract?
TracheaRight and left main bronchiLobar bronchisegmental bronchibronchiolesalveoli
At what level does the larynx become the trachea and the pharynx become the oesophagus?
C6 vertebral level (where the URT becomes the LRT)
What are the 2 parts of the chest (thorax)?
Chest walls (part of the body wall/ soma)Chest cavity
What are the parts of the chest wall?
SkinFascia (superficial and deep)Skeletalmuscle]Bone/ jointsParietal pelura
What are the functions of the chest wall?
Protests the chest's internal organsmakes the movements of breathingIncludes the breast tissue for lactation
What are the 3 parts of the chest cavity?
MediastinumRight and left neural cavities
What are the 2 layers of pleura?
Parietal pleuraVisceral pleura
What is the parietal pleura adherent to? (2)
The structures of the mediastinumThe internal aspect of the chest wall
What does the pleurae secrete into the pleural cavity?What is the purpose of this? (2)
Pleural fluidActs as a lubricantProvides surface tension
What is a lung lobe?
The area of lung that each of the lobar bronchi supply with air
What is a bronchopulmonary segment?
The area of lung lobe that each of the segmental bronchi supply with air
How many lobes and what are the names of the lung lobes in each lung?
Right:Superior, middle and inferior lobesLeft: superior and inferior lobes
How many bronchopulmonary segments does each lung have?
How do true ribs attach to the sternum?
Via their costal cartilage (ribs 1-7)
How do false ribs attach to the sternum?
Via their costal cartilage above the sternum (8-10)
How do the floating ribs attach to the sternum?
No attachment (11 and 12)
At what rib level is the sternal angle?
Where is the costal groove located and what is contained in this?
Inferiorly on deep surface of ribsIntercostal NVB
What part of the rib articulates with the body of the vertebra of the same number and the body of the vertebra superiorly?
The head of the rib
What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra of the same number?
The rib tubercle
What is located between the head of the rib and the rib tubercle
The neck of the rib
What is the main part of the rib called?
The body/ shaft of the rib
What is the part of the rib called where the shaft subtly changes direction?
The rib angle
What are the 3 "joints of breathing" and where are these located?
Costovertebral (rib to vertebra)Costochondral (rib to costal cartilage)Sternocostal (sternum to costal cartilage)
Names of the 3 layers of skeletal muscles which are located between the ribs and within the intercostal spaces?
External intercostal muscles (don't extend all the way anteriorly - fibres = as if putting hands in pockets)Internal intercostal muscles (fibres are pointing towards sternum)Innermost intercostal muscles (fibres are horizontal)
What are the main muscles of breathing?
The diaphragm (skeletal muscle)3 layers of intercostal muscles
What provides arterial blood supply to the intercostal spaces?
Anterior - Internal thoracic artery (courses vertically either side of the deep surface of the sternum)Posterior - thoracic aorta (bilateral branches)
What drains the intercostal spaces?
Posterior = azygous veinAnterior = internal thoracic veins (2 course either side of the deep surface of the sternum)