Flashcards in Anatomy 1 - Anatomy of Breathing Deck (55):
What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract?
Right and left nasal cavitiesoral cavityNas-, oro- and laryngo- pharynxlarynx
What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract?
TracheaRight and left main bronchiLobar bronchisegmental bronchibronchiolesalveoli
At what level does the larynx become the trachea and the pharynx become the oesophagus?
C6 vertebral level (where the URT becomes the LRT)
What are the 2 parts of the chest (thorax)?
Chest walls (part of the body wall/ soma)Chest cavity
What are the parts of the chest wall?
SkinFascia (superficial and deep)Skeletalmuscle]Bone/ jointsParietal pelura
What are the functions of the chest wall?
Protests the chest's internal organsmakes the movements of breathingIncludes the breast tissue for lactation
What are the 3 parts of the chest cavity?
MediastinumRight and left neural cavities
What are the 2 layers of pleura?
Parietal pleuraVisceral pleura
What is the parietal pleura adherent to? (2)
The structures of the mediastinumThe internal aspect of the chest wall
What does the pleurae secrete into the pleural cavity?What is the purpose of this? (2)
Pleural fluidActs as a lubricantProvides surface tension
What is a lung lobe?
The area of lung that each of the lobar bronchi supply with air
What is a bronchopulmonary segment?
The area of lung lobe that each of the segmental bronchi supply with air
How many lobes and what are the names of the lung lobes in each lung?
Right:Superior, middle and inferior lobesLeft: superior and inferior lobes
How many bronchopulmonary segments does each lung have?
How do true ribs attach to the sternum?
Via their costal cartilage (ribs 1-7)
How do false ribs attach to the sternum?
Via their costal cartilage above the sternum (8-10)
How do the floating ribs attach to the sternum?
No attachment (11 and 12)
At what rib level is the sternal angle?
Where is the costal groove located and what is contained in this?
Inferiorly on deep surface of ribsIntercostal NVB
What part of the rib articulates with the body of the vertebra of the same number and the body of the vertebra superiorly?
The head of the rib
What part of the rib articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra of the same number?
The rib tubercle
What is located between the head of the rib and the rib tubercle
The neck of the rib
What is the main part of the rib called?
The body/ shaft of the rib
What is the part of the rib called where the shaft subtly changes direction?
The rib angle
What are the 3 "joints of breathing" and where are these located?
Costovertebral (rib to vertebra)Costochondral (rib to costal cartilage)Sternocostal (sternum to costal cartilage)
Names of the 3 layers of skeletal muscles which are located between the ribs and within the intercostal spaces?
External intercostal muscles (don't extend all the way anteriorly - fibres = as if putting hands in pockets)Internal intercostal muscles (fibres are pointing towards sternum)Innermost intercostal muscles (fibres are horizontal)
What are the main muscles of breathing?
The diaphragm (skeletal muscle)3 layers of intercostal muscles
What provides arterial blood supply to the intercostal spaces?
Anterior - Internal thoracic artery (courses vertically either side of the deep surface of the sternum)Posterior - thoracic aorta (bilateral branches)
What drains the intercostal spaces?
Posterior = azygous veinAnterior = internal thoracic veins (2 course either side of the deep surface of the sternum)
What provides arterial blood for the lung tissue?
Bronchial arteries (Branches from the thoracic aorta's anterior surface)
Give an example of an internal part of the body wall?
The diaphragm (forms floor of chest cavity and roof of abdominal cavity)
What are parts of the diaphragm?
Right and left dome with a central tendon
Where does the muscular part of the diaphragm attach to?
The sternumThe lower 6 ribs and costal cartilagesL1 - L3 vertebral bodies
What nerve supplies the muscular part of the diaphragm?
Phrenic nerves (C3, 4, 5 anterior rami)
Where is the phrenic nerves located in the neck?
On the anterior surface of scalenus anterior)
Where is the phrenic nerve found in the chest?
Descending over the lateral aspect of the fibrous pericardium
What type of supply does the phrenic nerve supply to both the diaphragm and fibrous pericardium?What type of supply does the phrenic nerve supply to just the diaphragm?
Somatic sensory and sympathetic axonsSomatic motor axons
Apart from the diaphragm, what other thoracic structure does the phrenic nerve supply?
The fibrous pericardium
What happens anatomically during inspiration?
The diaphragm contracts and descends increasing the vertical chest cavity dimensionThe intercostal muscles contract, elevating the ribs and pulling the ribs laterally/ anteriorly (increasing the A-P and lateral chest cavity dimensions)The chest walls pull the lungs outwards with them due to surface tension between the parietal and visceral pleurae, the potential vacuum in the pleural cavity becomes an actual vacuum once the chest wall beings to move (sucking the 2 layers of the pleura together)The lungs expandAir flows into the longs down a pressure gradient
What happens anatomically during expiration?
The diaphragm relaxes and ascends decreasing the vertical chest cavity dimensionThe intercostal muscles relax, returning the ribs to the resting position decreasing the A-P and later chest cavity dimension)The chest wall return to the resting position, relaxing the stretch on the lungs (surface tension decreases and the actual cave becomes a potential vacuum again)The lungs are permitted to elastically recoilAir flows out of the lungs down a pressure gradient (between lungs and atmosphere)
What do the lungs contain that allows them to be stretched during inspiration and recoil during expiration?
What is the area around the female nipple called?
What is the part of the breast that extends into the upper outer quadrant called?
The axillary tail
What muscle lies deep to the breast?
Pectoralis major (pectorals minor deep to this)
What does the internal thoracic artery branch from?
The subclavian artery
What lymph nodes does breast tissue drain to?
Unilateral drainage from lateral quadrants to axillary nodesBilateral drainage from medial quadrants to parasternal nodes (chains run parallel and deep to the sternal edges)
What vein lies in the delta-pectoral groove?
Cephalic vein (superficial vein in arm)
What muscle anchors the medial border of the scapula to ribs 1 to 8
What nerve supplies serratus anterior via its superficial surface?Where does this originate from?
The long thoracic nerveBranch of the brachial plexus
What results in a winged scapula?
Paralysis of serrates anterior (usually through injury to the long thoracic nerve)
What are the different types of parietal pleura?
Cervical (at lung apices)CostalDiaphragmaticMediastinal
What is the most inferior part of the pleural cavity when upright?What is this located between?
The costodiaphragmatic recessLocated between the diaphragmatic parietal pleura and the costal parietal pleura
What fissures are present tin the right lung?
Horizontal fissure (only present in this lung)Oblique fissure (present in both lungs)
What fissure is present in the left lung?