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(459)- of 1862 offered cheap and sometimes free land to people who would settle the West and improve their property

Homestead Act


(456)- Migrants often encountered scarcities of essentials they once enjoyed. Open prairies contained insufficient lumber, so pioneer families built __________ and burned buffalo dung for heat

sod houses


(460)-invented barbed wire in 1873

Joseph Glidden


(460) invented by Glidden in 1873. inexpensive and mass-produced fencing consisted of wires held in place by sharp spurs twisted around them. It enabled Plains homesteaders to protect their farms from grazing cattle. It also ended open-range ranching and made roundups unnecessary, as large-scale ranchers enclosed herds within private property

barbed wire