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Flashcards in Pain and Healing Deck (42)
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1

what is pain?

a warning of actual or potential tissue damage
an essential function for survival
a complex interaction between mechanical neurological, psychological, and sociological factors

2

what are nociceptors?

receptor of a sensory neuron that responds to potentially damaging stimuli
it sends signals to the spinal cord and brain

3

Peripheral sensitization

Is a lowering of the nociceptor firing threshold in response to the release of various substances for nociceptive afferent fibers
It causes an increased magnitude of response to stimuli and an increase in the area from which stimuli can evolve action potentials

4

central sensitization

process of central nervous system adaptation to nociceptive input that changes transmission from peripheral nerves to the CNS; increase in the magnitude and duration of the response to noxious stimuli (primary hyperalgesia); enlarges the receptor fields of the nerves (secondary hyperalgesia); normal non-noxious stimuli becoming painful (allodynia)

5

What is released during the fight or flight response?

Release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, endorphins and other hormones and neurotransmitters

6

What does the fight or flight response result in?

Increased attention, muscle tone, hearth rate, BP, and skin conductance

7

How are pain receptor activated?

by intense thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli (both internal and external)

8

What is the role of pain receptors?

to convert stimulus into electrical activity to form action potentials; the signal travel along afferent nerves toward the spinal cord and the brain

9

what are the 3 kinds of peripheral pathways

A-delta fibers (small and myelinated), C fibers (small and unmyelinated), A-beta fibers

10

What are A-delta fibers?

small and myelinated peripheral pathways that are the thickest and fastest fibers; respond to intense mechanical stimuli and heat or cold; are sensations that are sharp, stabbing, or prickling

11

what are C fibers?

small and unmyelinated peripheral pathways that are slow in onset, long lasting, diffusely localized, accompanied by sweating, increased heart rate and BP or nausea; the sensations are dull, throbbing, aching, burning, tingling, or tapping

12

what are a-beta pathways?

they are peripheral pathways the are non-painful sensations related to vibrations stretching, and mechanical pressure; they can be involved in abnormal, prolonged pain perception

13

sympathetic nervous system influences on pain modulation and control:

fight or flight response
chronic sympathetic activations frequently exacerbate pain

14

motor system influences on pain modulation and control:

muscles can become stiff in order to protect tissue from further pain or injury; pain can thus lead to impairment of movement and balance

15

What is acute pain?

The direct result of actual or potential tissue injury due to a wound, disease, or invasive procedure; expected to resolve w/in 3-6 month depending on pathology

16

What is chronic pain?

pain that is enduring or recurrent and persists longer than typical for a condition; there is an inadequate response to appropriate and/or invasive care; it can cause a significant impairment or functional status

17

What is nociceptive pain?

Pain that ha a clear stimulus-response relationship with the initial injury

18

what is neuropathic pain?

pain that is usually accompanied by signs or symptoms of neurological dysfunction, such as a paresthesia, itching anesthesia or weakness

19

what is dysfunctional pain?

pain that does not serve a protective function; it is persistent, spreading worsening, and unpredictable pain without a clear cause

20

what is psychogenic pain?

pain where psychological processes play a large role, including somatization and conversion disorders

21

What are the goals of pain management care?

resolving underlying pathology when possible; modifying discomfort and suffering; and maximizing function within the limitations imposed by patient's condition

22

what are some common pain management approaches?

physical agent (modalities), pharmacological approaches, exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and manual therapy

23

what are the three stages of healing?

acute, subacute, and maturation

24

characteristics of the acute stage:

inflammatory phase
associated with heat swelling, redness, pain, and los of function
Immune response: activates neutrophils and other infection fighting cells
hemostatic response: stops bleeding
begins at the time of tissue damage and lasts from several hours to 3/4 days
pain and muscle spasms as well as edema

25

What is primary edema?

The hemorrhaged fluid, cells, and chemicals form the damaged tissues (exudate); vasodilation is increased;

26

What is secondary edema?

High concentrations of proteins, in the area from the primary edema causes an increase in pressure in the area; Fluid is pulled out of previously undamaged cells and capillaries in an effort to dilute the large quantity of protein; Can cause reduced ROM or tissue flexibility

27

What is the last phase of the acute phase?

Hematoma formation

28

What are the goals of rehab during the acute phase of healing?

Decrease secondary edema formation; decrease pain; initiate edema uptake

29

characteristics of the subacute stage?

Begins around day 4 post trauma and continues up to six weeks
Reabsorption of leukocytes and phagocytes to circulation
Proliferation of granulation tissue (beginning of healing process)
Collagen remodeling (process of thickening and strengthening the granulation fibers)
swelling decreases
discoloration turns to purple/yellow
increased ROM
Pain with tissue resistance

30

What are the goals of rehab during the subacute phase of healing?

To continue to decrease edema and spasms; facilitates formation of flexible and well aligned repair fibers

31

characteristics of the maturation stage:

begins after the subacute stage and lasts from 3 months to one year
completion of the collagen remodeling stage
granulation tissue has been completely dissolved and recycled
80% ROM returned
no pain with resistance in the second half of this stage

32

What are the goals of rehab during the maturation phase of healing?

Prevent adhesions
facilities collagen remodeling

33

What can cause chronic inflammation?

persistence of injuring agent (cumulative trauma); interference of normal healing process

34

What three factors affect the healing process?

Local
external
systematic

35

What are some local factors that effect healing?

Type, size, and location of injury
Vascular supply

36

What are some external factor that effect healing?

Therapeutic use of physical agents (modalities)
Movement

37

What are some systemic factors that effect healing?

Age
Disease
Medications - with systemic effects
Nutrition

38

What are some of the most important determinants of healing?

Regenerative capacity of the tissue
Vascular supply
Extent of Damage

39

Healing characteristics of cartilage

Limited healing ability
Lacks lymphatics, blood vessels, and nerves
cartilaginous injuries that also involve subchondral bone allow inflammatory ells to gain access to repair nearby cartilage

40

healing characteristics of tendons and ligaments

The potential for repair of these tissues depends on the type of tendon or ligament, the extent of damage, vascular supply, and control of movement
If healing occurs tendons possess a unique scar maturation phase that can achieve an advanced state of repair
Unlike tendons, ligament heal better with controlled passive mobilizations

41

healing characteristics of skeletal muscle

Can be injured by trauma, strain, or muscle diseases
Healing an occur in some cases through stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate
After severe contusion, a calcified hematoma can develop

42

Healing properties of bone

4 stages of healing
- inflammation (shortly after impact)
- soft callus (after swelling subsides)
- hard callus (3 weeks to 4 months)
- bone remodeling (months to years)