Pancreas/Gonads/Pineal/Misc Flashcards Preview

AP2 B3 > Pancreas/Gonads/Pineal/Misc > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pancreas/Gonads/Pineal/Misc Deck (99)
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1

endocrine and exocrine gland

(endocrine secretes directly into circulation)

Pancreas

but almost ALL exocrine

2

A flattened organ located in the curve of the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine)

Contains a head, body and tail

Pancreas

3

In the middle of the exocrine acini lie 1-2 million endocrine cells called ____ (Islets of Langerhans)

(Pancreas Endrocrine cells)

pancreatic islets

4

4 types of islet cells

Alpha
Beta
Delta
F (aka PP)

5

20% of islet cells, secrete GLUCAGON

Alpha (A) Cells

6

75% of islet cells, secrete INSULIN

Beta (B) Cells-

7

4% of islet cells, secrete somatostatin (GHIH)

Delta (D) Cells

8

1% of islet cells, secrete pancreatic polypeptide

F Cells (aka PP cell)

9

Stimulates liver to break down stored glycogen (glycogenolysis)

Stimulates liver to take up serum amino acids and convert them into glucose (gluconeogenesis)

Stimulates the break down of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol (lipolysis)

Glucagon

10

Receptors located in pancreas sense low blood glucose levels which trigger a release of

glucagon

11

Glucagon regulated through ___ feedback from serum glucose levels

negative

12

lowers blood glucose levels

insulin

13

Presence of food in small intestine triggers release of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GDIP; aka Gastric Inhibitory Peptide[GIP])

This triggers release of insulin from pancreas

14

Continued nutrient absorption raises blood glucose levels which further stimulate pancreas to continue to release insulin

insulin

15

Facilitates glucose uptake into cells

Stimulates glycolysis (metabolism of glucose for generation of ATP)

Stimulates glycogenesis (excess glucose into glycogen in liver)

Promotes triglyceride and protein synthesis

Insulin

16

Insulin Regulated through negative feedback from ___ levels

serum glucose

17

Acts in paracrine manner by inhibiting both insulin and glucagon release

Acts in an endocrine manner by inhibiting release of hGH from anterior pituitary gland

Somatostatin (aka GHIH)

also found in pancreas! (from Delta cells)

18

Inhibits somatostatin release

Inhibits gallbladder contraction

Inhibits secretion of bicarb and certain enzymes from pancreas

Thought to play a role in appetite suppression

Pancreatic polypeptide

(from F cells)

19

_____ inhibits release of insulin, stimulates secretion of glucagon from alpha cells of pancreas

Hypoglycemia

20

Glucagon acts on ___.

Stimulates conversion of glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis)

Stimulates gluconeogenesis. Glucose is then released by hepatocytes into blood stream


hepatocytes (liver cells)

21

glycogen into glucose

(glycogenolysis)

22

inhibits the release of glucagon, stimulates secretion of insulin by beta cells

Hyperglycemia

23

Facilitates diffusion of glucose into cells

Speeds conversion of glucose into glycogen (glycogenesis)

Increases uptake of amino acids to increase protein synthesis

Speeds synthesis of fatty acids (lipogenesis)

Insulin (acts on various cells in the body)

24

synthesize and secrete estrogen, progesterone, inhibin*, relaxin*

Ovaries

25

___, ____ along with LH and FSH (from ant pituitary) regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, prepare the mammary glands for lactation

Estrogen, progesterone

26

*Inhibin and Relaxin are only produced in large quantities when ___ occurs, otherwise negligible levels exist

pregnancy

27

Inhibin is used to inhibit ___.
Deters follicle development

FSH

28

Relaxes the cartilage of the pubic symphysis for passage of the baby

Helps to relax/widen the cervix

Relaxin

29

produce testosterone, inhibin

Testes

30

Stimulates decent of testes before birth
Regulates production of sperm
Regulates male secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone