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An organisation has decided to conduct an internal investigation of an accident in which an employee was injured following the collapse of storage racking.
a) Outline FOUR benefits to the organisation of investigating the accident. (4)

- the primary purpose of investigating an accident is to identify the immediate and root causes in order to prevent similar accidents occurring in the future.
- In this respect, the main reasons for investigation relate to the identification of possible weaknesses in risk assessment processes and other aspects of safety management systems.
- Other reasons relate to facilitating compliance with legal obligations, collecting evidence to defend a civil claim, determining economic loss and demonstrating management commitment to occupational health and safety.
- main reasons for investigating an accident is to determine its cause in order to prevent a recurrence.


An organisation has decided to conduct an internal investigation of an accident in which an employee was injured following the collapse of storage racking.
b) Giving reasons in EACH case, identify FOUR people who may be considered useful members of the investigation team. (8)

- a senior manager to demonstrate management commitment and to ensure appropriate remedial action was taken;
- the line manager or supervisor who would be familiar with the working practices in the area where the accident occurred;
- the safety adviser to offer advice on the legal implications of the accident and the
control measures currently in place;
- the safety representative to represent the interests of the employees;
- a technical expert such as an engineer who would be able to provide information on technical issues raised during the investigation.


An organisation has decided to conduct an internal investigation of an accident in which an employee was injured following the collapse of storage racking.
c) Having defined the team, outline the factors that should be considered when planning the investigation. (8)

- the outcome of the accident;
- the type and amount of information already available;
- the identification of witnesses;
- the preservation and current level of safety of the scene of the accident;
- the equipment required for the investigation;
- the history of previous similar incidents; the roles and responsibilities of the team members;
- the time scale for the investigation
- the format of the subsequent report.


a) Outline the purpose and general content of the THREE main sections of a health and safety policy document. (6)

- the 'statement of intent' (which both demonstrates management's commitment to health and safety and sets goals and objectives for the organisation),
- the 'organisation' section (the purpose of which is to allocate health and safety responsibilities within the company)
- the 'arrangements' section (which sets out in detail the systems and procedures that show how the policy is to be implemented).


b) Explain why a health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior person in an organisation, such as a Managing Director or Chief Executive. (2)

To demonstrate management commitment and this would give authority to the policy or that the person concerned ultimately had responsibility for health and safety in the organisation.


a) Identify TWO specific work activities for which a permit-to-work might be needed. (2)

- work in confined spaces,
- work in flammable atmospheres,
- work on electrical equipment,
- hot work and maintenance work on dangerous process plant or production machinery.


b) Outline the key elements of a permit-to-work system. (6)

- the first of which would be a description and assessment of the task to be performed (including the plant involved and the possible hazards).
- This will determine the need for, and nature of, other key elements – namely, the isolation of sources of energy and inlets,
- the additional precautions required (e.g. atmospheric monitoring, personal protective equipment, emergency
equipment) and the duration of the permit. - An essential element of a permit-to-work system is, of course, the operation of the permit itself.
- By means of signatures, the permit should be issued by an authorised person and accepted by the competent person responsible for the work.
- On completion of the work, the competent person would need to indicate on the permit that the area had been made safe in order for the permit to be cancelled by the authorised person, after which isolations
could be removed.


Outline why an organisation should have a system for the internal reporting of accidents. (4)

These include the compilation of accident statistics and the identification of trends; to
satisfy legal requirements; so that an investigation may be carried out to prevent a recurrence or to identify weaknesses in the safety management system; for use in civil claims or to satisfy insurance
requirements; to help in the identification and reduction of loss; and to inform the review of risk assessments.


Identify the reasons why workers might not report accidents at work. (4)

- employee being unaware of reporting procedures or the fact that no procedure was in place;
- peer pressure and a reluctance to
take time off from the job in hand;
- possible retribution or blame by management;
- to preserve the company’s or department’s safety record particularly when an incentive scheme is in operation; to avoid receiving first aid or medical treatment for whatever reason;
- over-complicated reporting procedures, and lack of obvious management response to earlier reported accidents.


A driver of a forklift truck has been seriously injured after the vehicle he was driving overturned.

Outline the possible immediate causes of the accident associated with:
(a) the way in which the vehicle was driven (2)
(b) the workplace (2)
(c) the vehicle (4)

(a) The possible immediate causes of the accident associated with the way in which the forklift truck was being driven would include the speed of the vehicle, particularly on corners;
- driving on uneven ground or across slopes; driving with the load elevated or with an excessive load or one that was not
securely placed on the forks;
- or colliding with another vehicle.
- Additionally the driver might have
been under the influence of alcohol or drugs

(b)As for the workplace, reference should have been made to the condition of the driving surface, including the possible presence of potholes;
- the absence of edge protection at loading bays;
- presence of obstructions such as kerbs.

(c) Possible causes associated with the forklift truck include the poor overall condition of the vehicle through lack of maintenance leading to brake failure and tyres that were incorrectly inflated.


Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system. (8)

HSG 65 model
- to outline the part played by each of the six elements in the model, beginning with policy which should be a clear statement of intent, setting the main health and safety aims and objectives of the company
and the commitment of management, followed by organisation for health and safety which should ensure the allocation of responsibility to appropriate members of staff, with the emphasis on achieving competency, control, communication and consultation.
- The next stage would be planning
and implementing that should involve carrying out risk assessments, the setting of standards and targets and the introduction of appropriate control measures to achieve them.
- That done, proactive and reactive monitoring systems would need to be introduced to provide data on the achievement or non-achievement of the objectives and targets set.
- Finally a review and audit should be carried out to check whether what was planned was actually taking place, to consider options for improvement and to set new targets where necessary.


An employee who works on a production line has notified her employer that she is pregnant.
Outline the factors that the employer should consider when undertaking a specific risk assessment in relation to this employee. (8)

Factors that an employer should consider in undertaking a specific risk assessment in relation to pregnant employees include exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, lead and those that cause intracellular changes or affect the embryo; biological exposures (e.g. hepatitis); exposure to physical agents such as ionising radiation and extremes of temperature; manual handling; ergonomic issues relating to prolonged standing or the involvement of awkward body movements; stress; issues
associated with the use and wearing of personal protective equipment; and the working of excessive


Explain, using an example in EACH case, the meaning of the following terms:
a) 'hazard' (2)
b) 'risk' (3)
c) 'so far as is reasonably practicable' (3)

(a) a hazard is something with the
potential to cause harm and quoting as examples noise, electricity or a chemical solvent.
(b) the probability or likelihood of harm
(c) this involves balancing risk against cost (including money, time and trouble)


Outline the factors to consider when making an assessment of first aid provision in a workplace. (8)

The number of trained first aid personnel and first aid facilities in relation to, for
example, the size of the organisation, the distribution and composition of the workforce, the types of hazard and level of risk present, the proximity to emergency medical services, the special needs
of travelling, remote or lone workers, and the ability to provide continued cover over different shifts and for sickness, leave and other absence


a) Explain the meaning of the term 'motivation'. (2)
b) Other than lack of motivation, outline SIX reasons why employees may fail to comply with safety procedures at work. (6)

(a) the driving force behind the way in which someone strives to achieve a goal or objective (e.g. to work safely).
(b) unrealistic working procedures;
- lack of management commitment;
- over familiarisation with the tasks to be performed; repetitive work leading to boredom and lack of concentration;
- peer group pressure;
- wilful disregard of laid down procedures coupled with inadequate or ineffective
- fatigue and stress; and lack of information, training and consultation.


Outline the sources of published information that may be consulted when dealing with a health and safety problem at work. (8)

- copies of relevant legislation,
- Approved Codes of Practice,
- HSE guidance documents and leaflets,
standards (International, European and British),
- safety periodicals,
- various technical and legal publications, data from manufacturers and suppliers, materials produced by employer and
employee organisations.


Outline the factors that might contribute towards a positive safety culture within an organisation. (8)

- commitment and leadership of
senior management and the competence and training of the workforce
• a clear policy with health and safety being given obvious equal priority to other
business objectives (production, quality, etc.);
• the setting of realistic and achievable targets;
• the provision of a good working environment;
• proactive monitoring of health and safety standards;
• effective communication channels;
• a ‘no-blame’ culture; and
• consultation with, and the involvement of, the workforce.


a) Draw a flowchart to identify the main components of the health and safety management system described in the HSE publication ‘Successful Health and Safety Management’ (HSG 65). (4)
(b) Outline TWO components of the Health and Safety Management System identified in (a). (4)

(a) • ‘Planning and implementation’;
• ‘Measuring performance’;
• ‘Reviewing performance’; and
• ‘Auditing’.

(b) in ‘planning and implementation’, they might have referred to the requirement
to assess risks and to devise safe systems of work, and, in ‘measuring performance’, to the use of active and reactive monitoring.


Outline the topics that may need to be included on the agenda of a safety committee meeting. (8)

These may include, for instance:
- a review of recent incidents;
- a review of proactive monitoring strategies such as safety inspections and audits;
- reports following visits by enforcement authorities; and
- the effects of the company of new or impending health and safety legislation.

Additionally, the safety committee agenda should include items:
- on possible amendments to the company’s health and safety policy and risk assessments;
- the extent and effectiveness of any health and safety training given to employees; and
- the introduction of new equipment and processes.
The safety committee is in place for health and safety concerns of employees to be raised by their representatives, as well as for management to raise its concerns
about poor safety practices.


Outline FOUR advantages and FOUR disadvantages of using propaganda posters to communicate health and safety information to the workforce. (8)

Posters are commonly used as a medium for passing on health and safety messages to the

Advantages of posters include:
- their relatively low cost (allowing them to be displayed in the most apposite positions);
- their brevity (allowing messages to be easily understood);
- their use in reinforcing verbal instructions or information;
- providing a constant reminder of important health and safety issues; and
- their potential to allow employees to become involved in their selection and hence in the message being conveyed.

Disadvantages include:
- the need to change posters on a regular basis if they are to be noticed;
- the fact that they may become soiled, defaced and out-of-date;
- the possibility that they might be seen to trivialise serious matters;
- they might actually alienate people if inappropriate stereotypes are used;
- they provide no direct way of assessing whether the message has been understood;
- they may be perceived by unscrupulous employers as an easy, if not particularly effective, way of discharging their responsibility to provide health and safety information; and
- shifting the responsibility on to the workforce for any accidents that may occur.


Identify EIGHT measures used to monitor an organisation’s health and safety performance. (8)

- rates of incidents, injuries and work-related ill health;
- actions to be taken by enforcement authorities;
- the number of civil claims;
- the results of inspections and environmental monitoring;
- safety audit outcomes;
- the degree of compliance with procedures (such as PPE usage);
- number of staff trained in health and safety; and
- the results of medical and/or health surveillance.


Outline the reasons why an organisation should monitor and review its health and safety performance. (8)

- To identify substandard health and safety practices and conditions (perhaps by means of workplace inspections);
- To identify trends in relation to different types of incident, or incidents in general (by analysis of relevant incident data);
- To compare actual performance with previously set targets; to ‘benchmark’ the
organisation’s performance against that of similar organisations or an industry norm;
- To identify whether control measures are in use and to assess their effectiveness;
- To be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified;
- To be able to make decisions on appropriate remedial measures for any deficiencies identified;
- To set priorities and establish realistic targets timescales;
- To assess compliance with legal requirements; and
- To be able to provide a Board of Directors or safety committee with relevant information.
- reducing the human and financial costs of accidents and for the loss of image of the organisation.