# Paper 1 required practicals Flashcards

Insulation PAG - If you want to investigate the effectiveness of different materials as insulators state the variables and whether they are continuous, discrete or cateroric

Independent - type of material - catergoric

Dependent - temperature loss - continuous

Controls - Volume(continuous), starting temperature(continuous), thickness of insulating material (continuous)

Insulation PAG - If you want to investigate the effectiveness of different materials as insulators state what type of graph you would draw and why?

Bar chart - one of the variables is catergoric

Insulation PAG - If you want to investigate the effectiveness of different materials as insulators describe a suitable method

- Boil a kettle and measure a set volume of boiling water in a measuring cylinder.
- Pour this boiling water into a beaker and wrap with a particular type of insulator
- Use a thermometer to measure the initial temperature
- Use a stop clock to time for 10 minutes and then measure the final temperature.
- Calculate the temperature change (Initial temp - final temp)
- Repeat to calculate an average
- Repeat for all the different insulators making sure the starting temperature and volume are controlled.

Insulation PAG - If you want to investigate the effectiveness of different materials as insulators describe what would cause errors in the experiment and how they would be reduced.

Heat lost to the surrounding, place a lid on top of the beaker.

Insulation PAG - If you want to investigate how the thickness of an insulator affects the rate of heat loss state the variables and whether they are continuous, discrete and catergoric

Independent - Number of layers of insulation - discrete

Dependent - temperature loss - continuous

Controls - Volume(continuous), starting temperature (continuous), type of insulation (categoric)

Density PAG - how can the density of a regular shape be found?

Measure the mass using an electronic balance

Measure the length of each side using a ruler

Calculate volume (length x breadth x width)

Calculate Density (mass / volume)

Density PAG - how can the density of a irregular shape be found?

Measure the mass using an electronic balance

Measure the volume with a eureka can by collecting the displaced water and using a measuring cylinder

Calculate Density (mass / volume)

Density PAG - how can the density of a liquid be found?

Measure the volume with a measuring cylinder

Place a beaker on an electronic balance and record the mass.

Add the liquid to the beaker and record the new mass

Calculate the mass of the liquid (final mass - initial mass)

Calculate Density (mass / volume)

Resistance PAG 1 - Describe a method to find the resistance of a wire

Set up a power pack connected to an ammeter in series and to a resistance wire and a voltmeter in parallel to the wire.

Set the crocodile clips so they are 10 cm apart.

Measure the current with an ammeter and the potential difference with a voltmeter.

Calculate the resistance using R = V/I

Repeat for other lengths

Resistance PAG 1 - State the variables and whether they are continuous, discrete and catergoric

Independent - length of wire - continuous

Dependent - current and voltage to calculate resistance -continuous

Controls - Temperature of wire - continuous, type of wire catergoric

Resistance PAG 1 - Describe the expected results

As length of wire increases so does the resistance. Length and resistance will be ** directly proportional** to each other. The graph would be a straight line through the origin.

Resistance PAG 1 - what would have caused the main error in the experiment and how could it be reduced.

Wire heating up - use a small current and turn the power off after each reading so the wire cools down.

Measuring the length of the wire due to the thickness of the crocodile clips - use thiner crocodile clips.

Resistance PAG 1 - Describe a suitable risk assessment

Wire will get hot - this could burn you - use a small current and turn the power off in-between readings

Resistance PAG 2 - What happens to total resistance when resistors are added in series?

Total resistance will increase as the current (electrons) will need to pass through all resistors in series

Resistance PAG 2 - What happens to total resistance when resistors are added in parallel?

Total resistance will decrease as the current (electrons) have more paths to take back to the battery.