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Flashcards in Parking + WPL Deck (11):

What are the 5 types of parking?

(Try and name some problems and benefits of each)

1) ON STREET - it takes up scarce road space and is hard to monitor / enforce, but it's good for local businesses

2) OFF STREET PUBLIC (eg, multi-storey) - local authority can control prices in line with strategy but more difficult if privately owned.

3) OFF STREET PRIVATE - (non-residential, company car park for employees) can't be controlled by local authorities, not utilised outside of working hours, poor use of space

4) RESIDENTIAL PARKING - (on street, CPZ / off-steet, driveways) - not a huge problem as in-peak cars are likely not parked in the city centre, although provision is often insufficient



Tell me 3 facts about parking charges as a TDM technique

1) Most popular pro-active TDM technique used in the UK

2) It is a 'second best' option after road user charging, it doesn't deal with through-congestion.

3) It's a fixed price paid at the destination, it's not a charge at the point of use for using a road, you've paid after you've congested


Although parking charges are a 'second best' option, it's preferable to road user pricing because... (2 reasons)

1) Political reasons - it's more acceptable

2) It's cost effective - the technology is cheaper than RP tech


7 problems with parking controls

1) If it's ineffective if just encourages illegal parking

2) Parking controls have to be enforced, which costs £

3) Impinges upon terminating traffic - it reduces travel to and from the centre and so reduces congestion, however it encourages travel across the centre which makes it inefficient and inequitable. Although, this issue is location specific depending on the size and nature of the urban area

4) It increases hunt time to find a vacant parking space, thus contributing to congestion

5) An increase in parking charges may cause people to park for shorter times. Although it will increase space churn, it will also increase through traffic.

6) Spatial distribution implications - longer distance terminating traffic has a relatively smaller burden to bear than shorter distance traffic, as longer distance journeys are more costly.

7) Parking charges lead to displacement "boundary effect", pushing problems elsewhere. Especially on perimeter of CPZs.


What was the goal of the Workplace Parking Levy?

To reduce congestion and provide funding to improve public transport.


Who has to pay the WPL?

Employers with sites with more than 10 parking spaces. It provides an incentive for them to reduce the total number of parking spaces.

500 firms in total pay the levy. The firms can choose to pass the cost onto their staff.


How much money does the WPL raise for Nottingham?

~£9m per year


The WPL may not reduce traffic alone...

It is the improvements to public transportation funded by the levy that should aid in reducing or constraining traffic growth.

Complementary measures need to be planned, you can't just take something away and not replace it.


4 issues with the WPL

1) It's seen as a blunt instrument. It does not distinguish between: those who travel in congested periods, those who have practicable public transport alternatives, people with less disposable income

2) Parking displacement (people parking in adjacent side streets near the business) - CPZ zones had to be implemented

3) Business and economic issues - firms might move away from Nottingham - although Dale (2017) showed that this was not the case, and firms were attracted to Nottingham because of its good transport

4) May impact upon recruitment and retention of staff. "paying to work!"


What has the implementation of WPL resulted in?

Studies from Dale (2017) have shown that the WPL has seen a commuting mode-shift away from the car, however, population and economic growth, in addition to roadworks for the transport improvements funded by WPL were cited as masking the impacts of the WPL upon congestion.


Are controlled parking zones effective in reducing congestion?

Rye et al. (2006) found that. 1.5 mile extension of the CPZ in Edinburgh would result in a 21% reduction of private car use and 13% increase in bus use.