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Flashcards in Part 3 Deck (73):
1

Passive diffusion involves?

Permeability
Concentration Gradient

2

Ultrafiltration is bulk flow through a?

Filter (Capillary)

3

Ultrafiltration involves starling forces such as?

Hydrostatic Pressure
Colloid Osmotic Pressure

4

Hydrostatic pressure gradient favors?

Filtration

5

Capillary hydrostatic pressure averages?

17 mm Hg

6

Interstital hydrostatic pressure averages?

-3 mm Hg

7

Colloid Osmotic Pressure favors?

Reabsorption

8

Capillary COP averages?

28 mm Hg

9

Interstitial COP averages?

9 mm Hg

10

Colloid osmotic pressure is a function of the?

Protein Concentration

11

Plasma proteins include?

Fibrinogen
Albumin
Globulins

12

Calculated colloid effect is?

19 mm Hg

13

Actual colloid effect is?

28 mm Hg

14

What increases colloid osmotic effect?

Donnan Effect

15

Large plasma proteins carry negative charges which attract positive ions. This increases the osmotic effect by?

50%

16

Capillary walls can range from

Tight junctions to discontinuous

17

Glomerular capillaries in kidney have?

Filtration Slits (Fenestrations)

18

Only the protein that cannot cross capillary wall can exert?

Osmotic Pressure

19

What expresses how readily protein can cross capillary wall?

Reflection Coefficient

20

Reflection coefficient ranges between?

0 to 1

21

If reflection coefficient is 0, all colloid proteins freely cross wall, none are reflected therefore?

No colloid effect

22

If reflection coefficient is 1, all colloid proteins are reflected, none cross capillary wall, therefore?

Full Colloid Effect

23

What drains excess fluid from interstitial spaces?

Lymph Capillaries

24

No true lymphatic vessels are found where?

Superficial portions of skin
CNS
Endomysium of muscle and bones

25

What drains the lower body and left side of head, left arm and part of chest as well as left leg?

Thoracic Duct

26

What drains the right side of the head, neck, right arm and part of the chest?

Right Lymph Duct

27

There are not true lymphatic vessels in the?

CNS

28

What contains CSF and communicates with subarachnoid space?

Perivascular Spaces

29

Plasma filtrate and escaped substances in perivascular spaces are returned to vascular system in the CSF via?

Arachnoid Villi

30

Arachnoid villi empty into?

Dural Venous Sinus

31

CNS-modified lymphatic function acts as a?

Functional Lymphatic System in CNS

32

Excess plasma filtrate resembles?

Interstitial fluid from tissues it drains

33

There is 3-5mg/dL of protein in?

Thoracic Duct

34

What organ has 6 mg/dL of protein?

Liver

35

Liver has leaky

Capillaries

36

2/3 of all lymph is from?

Liver and Intestines

37

Any factor that increases filtration and/or decreases reabsorption will?

Increase lymph formation

38

Thoracic duct forms lymph at?

100 ml/hr

39

Right Lymph duct forms lymph at?

20 ml/hr

40

Total lymph flow is?

120 ml/hr

41

Everyday a volume of lymph roughly equal to your entire plasma volume is?

FIltered

42

What are the functions of lymphatic?

1. Return lost protein to vascular system
2. Drain excess plasma filtrate from ISF space
3. Carry absorbed substance/nutrients from GI
4. Filter lymph at lymph nodes

43

What are a meshwork of sinuses lines with tissue macrophages (phagocytosis)?

Lymph Node

44

What created by the interaction of blood with the vascular wall?

Arterial Blood Pressure

45

Arterial blood pressure equals?

Volume of blood interacting with wall

46

Greater than half of total peripheral resistance is at the level of

Systemic arterioles

47

During systole the left ventricular output is greater than?

Peripheral Run-off

48

The total blood will rise and cause arterial BP to?

Increase to a peak (systolic BP)

49

The arteries are what during this time?

Distended

50

When the left ventricle is filling, the arteries are now recoiling which serves to?

Maintain perfusion to tissue beds

51

During diastole, total blood volume in the arterial tree is decreasing which causes?

Arterial BP to fall to a minimum value (diastolic BP)

52

Stretch and recoil of the arterial tree that normally occurs during the cardiac cycle is called?

Hydraulic Filtering

53

Hydraulic filtering converts an intermittent output by the heart to a steady delivery at the tissue beds and?

Saves the heart work

54

At the distensibility of the arterial tree decreases with age, hydraulic filtering in reduced and work load on the heart is?

Increased

55

The maximum pressure in the systemic arteries is called?

Systolic BP

56

With systolic BP, pressure peaks as blood is ejected from the?

Left Ventricle into the aorta

57

Inflow volume from left ventricle typically occurs at a faster rate than peripheral run-off out of the arterial tree during systole causing?

Arterial pressure to increase

58

The minimum pressure in the systemic arteries is called?

Diastolic BP

59

How low diastolic blood pressure falls is dependent on?

1. Cycle Length
2. Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)

60

Cycle length is inversely proportional to?

Diastolic BP (Increase CL decreases BP)

61

TPR is proportional to?

Diastolic BP (Increase TPR increases BP)

62

During exercise diastolic BP may not change much due to?

Decreased CL which is offset by decreased TPR

63

The mean arterial blood pressure is not arithmetical mean between?

Systole and Diastole

64

Mean arterial BP is equal to?

1/3 pulse pressure + diastolic BP

65

Most post ganglionic SNS terminals release?

Nor-epinepherine

66

The predominant receptor type is?

Alpha

67

Alpha response is constriction of?

Smooth Muscle

68

Constriction of arterioles reduce blood flow and helps raise?

Arterial BP

69

Constriction of arteries raise?

Arterial BP

70

Constriction of veins increases?

Venous return

71

SNS causes widespread vasoconstriction causing decrease in blood flow with what 3 exceptions?

1. Brain
2. Lungs
3. Heart

72

Brain and lung arterioles are weakly innervated by?

SNS

73

Direct vasoconstrictor effects by SNS induced increased in cardiac activity which causes?

Release of local vasodilators (Adenosine)