Flashcards in Part Five.1: Negligence > Intro/Duty Deck (34)
What is the prima facie case for "Negligence"?
1. Duty of care
3. Causation (Actual/Proximate)
What are the two general issues that arise with regards to "Duty of Care"?
1. Was the plaintiff foreseeable? (Duty of care is owed to foreseeable plaintiffs)
2. If so, what is the applicable standard of care?
To whom is a "duty of care" owed?
In general, a duty of care is owed to all foreseeable plaintiffs.
With regards to "duty of care," what is the rule if D breaches a duty to one P, and also causes injury to another (possibly unforeseeable) P?
1. Cardozo View (Majority) - "Foreseeable Zone of Danger" - P2 can recover only if she can establish that a reasonable person would have foreseen a risk of injury to her under the circumstances (ie..she was located in the foreseeable zone of danger).
2. Andrews View (Minority) - "Everyone is Foreseeable"- P2 need only show that D breached a duty to P1
What is a person's duty to "Rescuers"?
A rescuer is a foreseeable plaintiff IF D negligently put himself or 3rd person in peril.
HOWEVER --> firefighters and police may be barred by "firefighter's rule" from recovering for injuries caused by a rescue
What is a person's duty to fetus?
A duty of care is owed to viable fetus.
- In cases of failure to diagnose a congenital defect or properly perform a contraceptive procedure:
1. the child MAY NOT recover for "wrongful life";
2. but the parents MAY recover damages for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful pregnancy" for additional medical expenses for pain and suffering from labor. Ordinary child rearing expenses, however, may not be recovered.
What is duty to "intended beneficiaries of economic transactions"?
A 3rd party for whose economic benefit a legal or business transaction was made may be a foreseeable plaintiff.
Example --> beneficiary under will
What is the "Basic Standard of Care"?
- The basic standard of care is the "reasonable person" standard
- This is an "objective" standard. The defendant's MENTAL deficiencies and inexperience are NOT taken into account. However, the "reasonable person" is considered to have the same PHYSICAL characteristics as D.
-NOTE: One is expected to know one's handicaps and exercise the care of a person with such knowledge. Example ---> blind person should not fly plane
-NOTE: A defendant with knowledge or experience SUPERIOR to that of an average person may be held to a higher standard
What is the "standard of care" for professionals?
A professional is required to possess the knowledge and skill of a member of the profession in good standing.
What is a doctor's duty to disclose risks of treatment?
A doctor has a duty to disclose the risks of treatment to enable patient to give informed consent.
A doctor breaches this duty if an UNDISCLOSED RISK was serious enough that a reasonable person in patient's position would have withheld consent on learning the risk.
What is the "standard of care" for children?
- Children are held to the standard of a child of "like age, education, intelligence, and experience"
- this is a SUBJECTIVE test
Child under five ---> usually lacks capacity to be negligent
Child engaged in adult activities ----> may be required to conform to an adult's standard of care
What is the "standard of care" for common carriers and innkeepers?
Common carriers and innkeepers are held to a very high degree of care. They are liable for slight negligence.
But note --> P must be a passenger or guest for the higher standards to apply
What is the "standard of care" of automobile driver to guest?
- A guest in car is owed duty of ordinary care
-In a few guest statute states, one is liable to non-paying passengers only for RECKLESS tortious conduct
What is a "bailment" relationship?
In "bailment relationship" a BAILOR transfers possession but not title to chattel to BAILEE
What is the "standard of care" owed by BAILEE to BAILOR ?
-Bailee's standard of care depends on who benefits from bailment:
1. If for sole benefit of BAILOR, low standard of care;
2. If for sole benefit of BAILEE, high standard of care;
3. If for mutual benefit (ie..bailment for hire), ordinary care standard
Modern trend: applies a duty of ordinary care under the circumstances (so type of bailment is just one factor).
What is the "standard of care" owed by BAILOR to BAILEE ?
Sole benefit of bailee --> bailor must inform bailee of KNOWN, DANGEROUS defects in chattel
Bailment for hire (mutual benefit) --> bailor must inform bailee of chattel defects or which he is or should be aware
How does the existence of an emergency affect one's duty of care?
A defendant must act as a REASONABLE PERSON would under the same emergency conditions.
HOWEVER --> if emergency is of D's own making, it won't be considered
What are the general considerations regarding liability for owners/occupiers of land?
The extent of liability depends on:
1. where injury occurred; and
2. identity of plaintiff
What is the duty of land possessor to those who are OFF PREMISES?
- Generally, there is NO duty to protest those OFF premises from NATURAL CONDITIONS on the premises;
-HOWEVER ---> There IS a duty for:
1. UNREASONABLY DANGEROUS ARTIFICIAL CONDITIONs; OR
2. structures abutting adjacent land.
-ALSO: one must carry on activities on the premises so as to avoid UNREASONABLE risk of harm to others off premises
In urban areas, is owner/occupier liable for damage cause off premises by a tree on premises?
Example --> falling branches
What is the duty of a land possessor to those who are ON PREMISES?
Traditional rule --> duty owed to P depends on premises for dangerous conditions on the land depend on P's status as:
Minority rule --> Reject the distinctions between licensees and invitees, and simply apply a "reasonable person standard"
NOTE: MBE questions will specify jurisdiction.
Under traditional rules, what is the duty of a land possessor to TRESPASSER on premises?
Undiscovered Trespassers ---> No duty owed
Discovered/Anticipated Trespassers -->
(1) warn of or make safe CONCEALED ARTIFICIAL CONDITIONS KNOWN to landowner involving risk of death or serious bodily injury; AND
(2) use REASONABLE CARe in the exercise of "active operations" on the property
NOTE: no duty is owed for natural conditions, or less dangerous artificial conditions
NOTE: easement and license holders owe a duty of reasonable care to trespassers
What is the "Attractive Nuisance" doctrine?
- landowner has duty to exercise ordinary care to avoid a reasonably foreseeable risk of harm to children caused by dangerous conditions on his property
-typically, this is an artificial condition, but a natural condition may suffice
1. dangerous condition on land that owner is or should be aware of;
2. owners knows or should know that children frequent the area;
3. condition is likely to cause injury; AND
4. the expense of remedying the situation is slight compared with the magnitude of the risk
NOTE: the child does not need to be attracted to the land because of the condition.
What is a "licensee"?
"Licensee" = enter's land with possessor's permission for HER OWN benefit or purpose, rather than for the possessor's benefit
Note: Social guests are considered licensees
What duty does a land possessor owe to a licensee?
1. warn or make safe dangerous conditions (artificial or natural)
2. KNOWN to the owner
3. that create an unreasonable risk of harm to the licensee; AND
4. that licensee is unlikely to discover
2. exercise REASONABLE CARE in "active operations" on the property
NOTE: possessor has NO duty to inspect or repair
What is an "Invitee"?
"Invitee" enter the land in response to invitation by landowner (purpose connected with business of landowner, or as members of the public for a purpose for which the land is held open to public).
NOTE: one may lose invitee status by exceeding scope of invitation
What is duty owed to "Invitee"?
-Same duty owed to licensee; PLUS
- duty to make REASONABLE INSPECTIONS to discover non-obvious dangerous conditions, and thereafter make them safe.
What are the duties of lessor of property to lessee (tenant)?
1. warn of existing defects;
2. of which he is aware or has reason to know; AND
3. which he knows lessee is not likely to discover upon reasonable inspection;
2. If lessor covenants to repair, he is liable for unreasonably dangerous conditions;
3. If lessor volunteers to repair, he is liable for negligent repairs
NOTE: if guest of tenant is injured, both lessor and tenant may be liable
What is the duty of Vendor of Real Estate to Vendee?
Vendor must DISCLOSE to vendee:
1. concealed unreasonably dangerous conditions;
2. of which vendor KNOWS or has reason to know; AND
3. which he KNOWS vendee is not likely to discover on REASONABLE INSPECTION.