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Flashcards in Part I Deck (73)
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1

conservationist

someone who advocates or practises the sensible and careful use of resources

 

2

preservationist

someone who advocates allowing some places/creatures to exist w/ significant human interference

3

environmentalist

someone who is concerned about impact of people on environment quality

4

ecologist

scientist who studies the relationship b/w organisms and enviro (often analogous in media to environmentalist)

5

history of

  1. preservation
  2. environmentalism
  3. ecology

  1. establishment of Yellowstone national park marks beginning of gov. policy of preservation
  2. 'Silent Spring' by Rachel Carson in 1962: treatise on pesticides
    • global environmental movement in UN 1972
  3. not in public eye until advent of environmentalism
    • new gov. agencies, advocate groups, etc. that needed ecologists

6

Callicott ethics

  • Romantic Transcendental Preservation ethic
  • Resource conservation ethic
  • Evolutionary-ecological land ethic

7

romantic-transcendental ethic

  • John Muir C19th
  • communication w/ nature brings people closer to god
  • visiting ancient forests for this purpose morally superior to using for agro
  • i.e. nature is a temple sullied by people

8

resource conservation ethic

  • Gifford Pinchot C19th
  • nature consists solely of natural resources and should be used to provide the greatest good for greatest #people for longest time
  • not a call to plunder land but to distribute benefits efficiently and fairly
  • emphasized not short changing future
  • can recognise aesthetics as a resource
  • natural resources should be owned/regulated by gov. 

9

evolutionary-ecological land ethic

  • Aldo Leopold C20th
  • people are citizens of biotic system, not separate
  • people have righ tot use/manage nature but responsible for recognising value of other species
  • could use destructive tools to mend environment

10

conservation biology

applied science of maintaining Earth's biology

11

12

biodiversity

variety of life in all forms and at all levels of organization

 

13

genes

self-replicating pieces of DNA that shape form+function of each individual organism

 

14

ecosystem

gorup of interacting organisms and physical environment they inhabit at a given time

15

species

groups of actually/potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups

16

Why is diversity of ecological functions so enormous?

  • millions of species interacting w/ each other
  • every species interacts w/ own environment

17

functional biodiversity

variation in processes carried out in diff. levels of biodiversity

 

18

structural biodiversity

variation in way parts are organised (e.g. population structure)

19

why do biologists usually focus on maintaining structural biodiversity rather than functional?

  • more straightforward (easier to inventory species than interactions)
  • if maintain SD, FD maintained as well

20

how to measure biodiversity?

  1. determine which elements of biodiversity are present (richness)
  2. determine relative abundance of diff. species (evenness)

21

extinction

disappearance of a species from earth (or smaller area - extirpations)

 

22

endemic

species only found in a defined geographic area

23

  1. alpha
  2. beta
  3. gamma

diversity

  1. diversity w/in ecosystem
  2. diversity among ecosystem
  3. geographic-scale diversity

24

maximise biodiversity

  • implies manipulation
  • e.g. increasing alpha diversity of ecosystem

25

maintain biodiversity

keep all elements of biodiversity despite human activity

26

enhance/restoring biodiversity

may be short-sighted, unless means restoring ecosystem to previous state

27

protecting biodiversity

similar to maintaining but w/ emphasis on -ve human impact

28

preserving biodiversity

similar to protect and implies only way to maintain biodiversity is to isolate from humans

29

conserve biodiversity

use it carefully and not diminish LR

30

biotic integrity

  • wholeness of a biological system
  • includes presence of all elements at appropriate densities and occurence of all processes at appropriate rates