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Parts of speech

A part of speech is a group of words that are used in a certain way. For example, "run," "jump," and "be" are all used to describe actions/states. Therefore they belong to the VERBS group.

In other words, all words in the English language are divided into eight different categories. Each category has a different role/function in the sentence.

The English parts of speech are:
Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.



A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, animal, idea or activity.

For example:
Person — Maria
Place — West Virginia
Thing — Desk
Quality — Width
Animal — Dog
Idea — Independence
Activity — Navigation

Example sentence: People like to go to the beach.
Emma passed the test.
My parents are traveling to Japan next


Abstract noun

An abstract noun is a word that names something that you cannot see, hear, touch, smell, or taste. using these five senses.

It is the opposite of a concrete noun.

Idea Emotion

Love happiness
intelligence anger
justice excitement
religion fear
time surprise

Hint: Remember, pronouns are not nouns


Concrete noun

Concrete nouns name people, places, or things that you can touch, see, hear, smell, or taste.

Person Place Thing

man river dog
Mrs. Jones Paris book
doctor mountains sports car
Maddie home Ferrari


Collective noun

A collective noun names a group of people, thing or animals.

Examples: family


Singular noun

A singular noun names one person, place, or thing.

Examples: Manager


Plural noun

A plural noun names more than one person, place, or things.

Examples: Team


Common and Proper

Common nouns name any person, place, thing, or idea. They are not capitalized unless they come at the beginning of a sentence.
Proper nouns are the names of specific people, places, things, or ideas. Proper nouns should always be capitalized.

Common Proper

boy James
river Mississippi River
car Ford
doctor Doctor Jefferson
town Rockledge
candy bar Baby Ruth

Hint: Don't forget to capitalize all parts of proper nouns. Many people forget to capitalize words like river and country in proper nouns like Yellow River and Orange Country.



Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.
sometimes, we de not want to use a noun. so we us pronoun.

Example: Mark is in the kitchen. He is cooking.

Personal subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

Mark does not like me.

Personal object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them

Is that David's car?
No, it is mine.

Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs



Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns.

1) The quality or type
Mark is driving a black car.

2) The size
Mark is driving a big car.

3) The number
Mark has several cars.

4) Possession
It is his car.

Possessive adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their



Verbs are words that show an action:

Main verb - Mark drives a bus.
Auxiliary verb - Jane is drinking a cup of coffee.
We played football.

Verbs can also show a state: Mark is tired.
Jane was angry.
I feel ill.

Verbs have different tenses which indicate:
time ( past, present or future )
aspect ( completed or continous )



Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs:
Mark is running quickly. ( adverb of manner )

Jane never drinks coffee. ( adverb of frequency )
We will go there tomorrow. ( adverb of place )

Adverbs can also describe or modify other adverbs:
Mark is running quickly. > Mark is running very quickly.

Adverbs can also describe or modify adjectives:
Mark is tired. > Mark is very tired.
The car is expensive. > The car is too expensive.



Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses together.

Common examples: and, or, because, so, but, while, for.

I like cats and dogs.
The telephone rang while I was cooking dinner.
I am hungry but I don't have any food.



Prepositions connect noun phrases to another part of the sentence.

Preposition means "place before " It is usually before the noun phrase.

1) To describe place: Mark is in the kitchen.
The lamp is on the table.

2) To describe time: I am going to London for a week.
Please don't talk during the lesson.

3) T describe method: I will send you the offer by email.
He gave me an answer in writing



Interjections are small words without my real grammatical value.

Interjections express emotion.
Interjections are common in spoken English.

Brrr! It's cold in here.
= to express feeling cold.

Danm! I missed the train.
= to express disappointment or frustration

Shh! Please don't talk during the film.
= to ask people to be quiet.

Hurray! I won the lottery.
= to express feeling pleased.