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Which of following not part of inflammatory response ? Vasodilation , release of histamine, production of antibodies , increased capillary permeability

Production of antibodies


Which stimulates the division of lymphocytes ?

The binding of antigens to receptors on the cell membrane


Two groups were used carrying out clinical trial of vaccine . One group was given vaccine the other group was given a placebo(what was the purpose of the placebo was ?)

Ensure a vaild comparison can be made


What is differentiation ?

Explanation - only the genes characteristic for that cell are expressed


Describe one ethical consideration that might have influenced this descion to use stem cells ?

Is is right to use embryos to extract stem cells ?


Where does translation take place ?



Explain why the primary mRNA transcript is so much shorter than chromosomal Dna ?

Only one gene is transcribed or the primary mrna only codes for one protein


Explain energy investment phase ? & explain energy pay off phase ?

Energy investment - atp molecules are broken down or phosphorylation addition of phosphate to glucose occurs energy pay off- atp molecules are produced


What does creatine phosphate do for a sprinter ?

Creatine phosphate releases energy at a fast rate for a short period of time


Describe how the presence of the muscle tissue in the artery wall helps to control the flow of blood around the body ?

It can vasoconstriction to reduce blood flow to some areas or it can vasodilate to increase blood flow to some areas


Describe how an atheroma forming under enothelium may lead to formation of a blood clot & stay possible effects ?

Endothelium is damaged , clotting factors are released , prothrombin is converted to its active form to thrombin , fibrinogen is converted into fibrin by thrombin , fibrin threads form a mesh work that deals wound , thrombus is formed may break loose forming an embolus which leads to stroke or heart attack


Explain why two figures are given for a blood pressure reading ?

The first figure is systolic blood and second figure is diastolic blood pressure


Explain link between high blood pressure and build up of tissue fluid ?

Lymph vessels cannot reabsorb all the excess tissue fluid


Describe the role of insulin in the development of type 1 & type 2 diabetes ?

Type 1 - insulin is not produced so blood glucose concentration cannot be controlled type 2- insulin is produced but cells have fewer insulin receptors


Suggest how a student can adapt the investigation to demonstrate social facilitation ?

Repeat the investigation in front of an audience as a competition


Explain what is meant by the term herd immunity ?

A large percentage of the the population is immunised this means that there is a very low chance that non immune individuals will come in contact with infected individuals


What is community responsibility ?

Clean water sepreate water from sewage , vector control


Hiv infection ?

Hiv attacks lymphocytes reducing the ability of the immune system to respond to the bacterial infection


The transformation of info into a form that memory can accept is called ?