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1

Equine tarsocrural joint injection

  • Dorsomedial direction
  • Between tibia and talus

2

Equine tarsometatarsal joint injection

  • Medial direction
    • Between TC and T3
  • Lateral direction
    • Between T4 and Mt4

3

Equine stifle joint injection

  • Lateral direction
    • The joint recess of extensor groove
  • Medial direction
    • Between medial and intermediate patellar ligaments

4

Equine fetlock joint injection

  • Through dorsal recess, lateral/medial to the extensor tendon

or

  • Through palmar recess
    • Between cannon bone and suspensory ligament
    • At the level of the splint bones

5

Canine stifle joint injection

  • Cross between:
    • Patellar ligament
    • Lateral collateral ligament
  • Above meniscus
  • Behind long digital extensor tendon

6

Equine common peroneal nerve block

  • Lateral aspect
  • 12cm prox. to tuber calcanei
  • Between long and lateral digital extensors

7

Canine common peroneal nerve block

  • Feel the nerve on the head of the fibula
  • Inject just distally to this

8

Canine deep peroneal nerve block

  • Groove between long digital extensor and peroneus longus
  • Halfway between stifle and tarsus

9

Pulse taking in ruminants

Coccygeal artery

10

Drawing blood in ruminants

  • Vena cava cranialis
  • V. jugularis

11

Drawing blood in canine

  • External jugular
  • Cephalic
  • Saphenous

12

During an equine rectal exam, can you palpate the spermatic cord?

Yes

13

During an equine rectal exam, which kidney can be palpated?

Caudal part of the left kidney

14

During an equine rectal exam, which inguinal ring can be felt?

Deep

15

During a ruminant rectal exam, which diverticulum can you feel?

Suburethral

16

During a ruminant rectal exam, list what can be palpated on the left?

Left:

  • Rumen
  • Abomasum
  • Spleen

17

During a ruminant rectal exam, list what can be palpated in the middle?

Middle:

  • Kidneys
  • Left ureter
  • Ovaries

18

During a ruminant rectal exam, list what can be palpated on the right?

  • Small intestine
  • Caudal flexure of the duodenum
  • Bladder
  • Uterus
  • Colon

19

Does the perineum cover the cervix?

No

20

Does the peritoneum cover the cervix?

Yes

21

Does the mediastinum cover the cervix?

No

22

Where is the descending duodenum?

Right side

23

The direction of the ascending duodenum

Cranially on the left

24

Difference between left and right uterine horns

  • Right is longer/more cranial
  • Left is looser (longer suspension)

25

What is cranial to Lig. vesicae lateralis?

Lig. teres vesicae

26

In horse, which portion of the left kidney is in the greater mesentery?

Dorsal

27

In horse, give the direction of colon travel

  1. R. ventral → Sternal flexure
  2. L. ventral → Pelvic flexure
  3. L. dorsal → Diaphragmatic felxure
  4. R. dorsal → Ampulla

28

In horse, where is the spleen?

Left side, craniodorsally

29

In horse, where is the ostium ileocaecale?

  • Right side, middle and ventrally
  • 7cm cranioventrally to tuber coxae

 

30

In horse, where is the small intestine?

Left side, caudodorsally

31

In horse, where is the pelvic flexure?

  • Left side, caudoventrally
  • Between left ventral and left dorsal colon

32

In horse, where is the caecum?

  • Right side, dorsally
  • Apex at the sternum
  • Base at paralumbar fossa

33

In horse, which direction does the ileum go?

Left → right

34

In horse, how many ligaments of the bladder are there?

3

35

In ruminant, where is the omasum?

  • Caudodorsal to the reticulum
  • Above abomasum
  • Facies liber on the right

36

In ruminant, where is the rumen?

Fills the left side

37

In ruminant, where is the left kidney?

  • Retroperitoneal
  • Caudal to the right kidney
  • In midline

38

In ruminant, where is the greater omentum attached?

  • On the rumen
  • Along sulcus longitudinalis sin., caud. and dex.

39

In ruminant, where is the reticulum?

  • Left side, ventrally
  • 6-9IC space
  • Against the sternum

40

In ruminant, where is the liver?

Right of the reticulum and omasum

41

In ruminant, what do you find at the female urethra?

Suburethral diverticulum

42

In ruminant, what is the direction of the hilus of the left kidney?

Dorsal

43

In ruminant, what is the position of omasum relative to reticulum?

Dorsal/Caudal/Dextral

44

In ruminant, what is in contact with the right of the omasum?

Liver

45

In ruminant, what is caudal to the omasum?

Abomasum

46

In ruminant, what is the position of the sigmoid flexure of the colon relative to the deferent duct?

Caudal

47

In ruminant, which side of the greater omentum is the colon descendens?

Lamina visceralis

48

In ruminant, which side of the greater omentum is the colon centripetalis?

Lamina visceralis

49

In ruminant, which organs are around the greater omentum?

Visceral:

  • Colon
  • Jejunum

Parietal:

  • Liver
  • Spleen
  • Kidney

50

In ruminant, is the abomasum in contact with the abdominal wall?

Yes

51

In ruminant, describe the ascending colon

  1. Proximal loop
  2. Centripetal coils
  3. Central flexure
  4. Centrifugal coils
  5. Distal loop

52

In ruminant, name the folds of the rumen

Villi / Papillae

53

In canine, which male accessory gland is at the neck of the bladder?

Prostate

54

In canine, where is the gall bladder?

Between the right medial and quadrate lobes

55

In canine, does the stomach contact the abdominal wall?

Only when full

56

In canine, Is the cervix intra or retroperitoneal?

Retro

57

Which ligament is attached to the joint capsule of the stifle?

Medial collateral

58

Do tarsocrural and proximal tarsal joint capsules communicate?

Yes

59

If you insert a pin to the tuber calcanei, which tendons do you go through?

Gastrocnemius + SDF

60

In equine, which ligaments attach to the patella?

Medial + intermediate

61

In equine, which meniscus is not attached to the femur?

Medial

62

In equine, which femorotibial capsule communicates with the femoropatellar capsule?

Medial

63

In equine, how do you treat club hoof?

Cut accessory ligament of DDF or SDF tendon

64

In equine, how do you treat bone spavin?

  • Tarsometatarsal ankylosis

or

  • Cut medial tendon of insertion of tibialis cranialis

65

In equine, what is arthrotomy of the fetlock joint?

Removal of apical sesamoid fractures

66

In equine, which lameness indicated joint degeneration?

Supportive leg lameness

67

In equine, which lameness indicated muscle, tendon or ligament damage?

Swinging leg lameness

68

In equine, do the medial and lateral stifle capsules communicate?

No

69

In equine, how do you check the bone spavin?

  • Flex the tarsus for a while
  • If lameness worsens → Bone spavin

70

In equine, if tuber calcanei is fractured, what can be done?

Extension of the hock

71

In ruminants, name the patellar ligaments

Lateral, medial and intermediate

72

In ruminants, do the lateral and medial stifle capsule communicate?

Yes

73

In canine, do the lateral and medial stifle capsules communicate?

Yes

74

Give the puncta maxima of the heart: Equine

  1. Pulmonary trunk: IC3, distal third
  2. Aorta: IC4, 5cm below shoulder
  3. LAV: IC4-5, distal third
  4. RAV: IC3-4 distal portion

75

Give the puncta maxima of the heart: Canine

  1. Pulmonary trunk: IC3, above sternum
  2. Aorta: IC4, shoulder
  3. LAV: IC5, distal third
  4. RAV: IC4, distal portion

76

Give the puncta maxima of the heart: Ruminant

  1. Pulmonary trunk: IC2-3, distal third
  2. Aorta: IC3-4, 2cm below shoulder
  3. LAV: IC4, distal third
  4. RAV: IC3, distal portion

77

Give the lung borders of canine

  1. VC: IC12
  2. TC: IC11
  3. TI: IC10
  4. Sh: IC8

78

Give the lung borders of ruminant

  1. VC: IC12
  2. TC: IC11
  3. TI: Ø
  4. Sh: IC8

79

Give the lung borders of swine

  1. VC: IC12
  2. TC: IC11
  3. TI: IC9
  4. Sh: IC7

80

Number of (unilateral) ribs: Ca

13

81

Number of (unilateral) ribs: Ruminant

13

82

Number of (unilateral) ribs: Swine

14

83

Number of (unilateral) ribs: Equine

18

84

Location of cardiac dullness: Canine

  • Left side: IC4-IC6
  • Right side: IC4-IC5

85

Location of cardiac dullness: Equine

  • Left side: IC3-IC5
  • Right side: IC4-IC5

86

Location of cardiac dullness: Ruminant

  • Left side: IC3-IC4
  • Right side: Ø

87

Relative dullness length: Small animals

1-2 cm

88

Relative dullness length: Large animals

3-4cm

89

What is relative dullness?

  • Where the heart is partly covered by lungs
  • Not in contact with the thoracic wall

90

What recess surrounds margo acutus of lungs?

Costodiaphragmatic recess

91

What is the role of recesses?

Fluid traps

92

Which heart wall is more cranial?

Right

93

Which heart sound is more cranial?

Pulmonary trunk

94

Where is the oesophagus?

  1. Dorsal to the trachea in the neck
  2. Then falls to the left in the thorax

95

In equine, which sinus does not communicate with the maxillary sinus?

None

96

In equine, which concha connects to the frontal sinus?

Dorsal

97

In equine, is the maxillary sinus divided?

Yes

  • By a septum into the rostral and caudal maxillary sinus
  • And partly by the infraorbital canal into lat. and med. maxillary sinus

98

In equine, what communicates with the caudal maxillary sinus?

Conchofrontal + Sphenopalatine sinus

99

In ruminants, which sinus extends into the horns?

Frontal sinus

100

In ruminants, describe the sinus system

  1. Ventral + dorsal systems
  2. Maxillary doesn't communicate with frontal
  3. Frontal is divided into rostral + caudal parts
  4. Lacrimal sinus present; palatine sinus Ø

101

Innervation of CN-II

Optic nerve → Retina 

102

Efferent nerve of the pupillary reflex

Oculomotor nerve (CN-III)

103

Afferent nerve of the pupillary reflex?

Optic nerve (CN-II)

104

Innervation of CN-III

Oculomotor →

  • Dors. + vent. rectus mm.
  • Vent. oblique m.
  • Levator palpebralis
  • Sphincter pupillae

 

105

Facial nerve is for...?

  • Facial expression mm.
  • Sensory to skin
  • Special sensory to tongue (chorda tympani)

106

Nerves of palpebrae

  • Afferent → Trigeminal
  • Efferent → Facial

107

Nerves of nostrils

  • Infraorbital
  • Caudal nasal
  • Nasociliary

108

Sensory nerves of the tongue

  • Glossopharyngeal (CN-IX)
  • Facial (CN-VII)
  • Mandibular (CN-V3)

109

Motor nerve of the tongue

Hypoglossal (CN-XII)

110

What is blocked by the mandibular nerve block?

  • Salivary glands
  • Mastication mm.
  • Lower teeth + lip
  • Tongue
  • Part of external ear

111

Muscular innervation of the trigeminal nerve

Muscles of mastication

112

In equine, give the nerves innervating the eyes

  • Abducent
  • Trochlear
  • Oculomotor
  • Optic

113

In equine, give the nerves innervating the muscles of the head

  • Trigeminal
  • Facial

114

In equine, give the nerves innervating the mouth

  • Vagus
  • Glossopharyngeal
  • Hypoglossal

115

In ruminants, which nerve should be anaesthetised when dehorning?

R. cornualis ex zygomaticotemporal ex trigeminal

116

Which species have a patellar lymph node?

Equine

117

Which species have a suburethral diverticulum?

Su/Ru

118

What is the first heart sound?

Closure of AV valves, systole

119

What is the second heart sound?

Closure of semilunar valves, diastole

120

When can't you hear heart sounds?

Inspiration

121

When can you hear heart sounds?

Expiration

122

Mammary gland arrangement: Equine

  • Thoracic: Ø
  • Abdominal: Ø
  • Inguinal: 2

Total: 2

2 openings in each teat

123

Mammary gland arrangement: Swine

  • Thoracic: 4
  • Abdominal: 6
  • Inguinal: 2

Total: 12-14

2/3 openings in each teat

124

Mammary gland arrangement: Feline

  • Thoracic: 4
  • Abdominal: 2
  • Inguinal: 2

Total: 8

4-8 openings in each teat

125

Mammary gland arrangement: Bovine

  • Thoracic: Ø
  • Abdominal: Ø
  • Inguinal: 4

Total: 4

1 openings in each teat

126

Mammary gland arrangement: Canine

  • Thoracic: 4
  • Abdominal: 4
  • Inguinal: 2

Total: 10

8-15 openings in each teat

127

Give the blood supply of the retina

Ophthalmic artery (ex internal carotid)

128

What lymph node is between latissumus dorsi and deep pectoral?

Accessory axillary

129

In equine, when does Di2 erupt?

6 weeks

130

In equine, what are the borders of Viborg's triangle?

  • Linguofacial vein
  • Caudal border of mandible
  • Tendo m. sternomandibularis

131

Which structures are in incisura vasorum facialum?

  • Facial A./v
  • Parotid duct

132

Which salivary gland cannot be palpated?

Zygomatic

133

Give the number of vertebrae: Swine

  • C: 7
  • Th: 14-15
  • L: 6
  • S: 4

134

Give the number of vertebrae: Ruminant

  • C: 7
  • Th: 13
  • L: 6
  • S: 5

135

Give the number of vertebrae: Equine

  • C: 7
  • Th: 18
  • L: 6
  • S: 5

136

Give the number of vertebrae: Canine

  • C: 7
  • Th: 13
  • L: 7
  • S: 3

137

Give the dental formulae: Swine

Upper: 3/1/4/3

Lower: 3/1/4/3

138

Give the dental formulae: Ruminant

Upper: 0/0/3/3

Lower: 3/1/3/3

139

Give the dental formulae: Equine

Upper: 3/1/3/3

Lower: 3/1/3/3

140

Give the dental formulae: Canine

Upper: 3/1/4/2

Lower: 3/1/4/3

141

Pulse taking from the metatarsal

From the dorsal aspect

142

Which surface isn't anaesthetised during the digital nerve block?

Dorsal surface

143

Which joint is used for distal metacarpal block?

  • Fetlock
  • Pastern
  • Coffin

144

Which joint is used for high digital block?

Fetlock joint