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Flashcards in Path - Blood vessels Deck (68):
1

Vasculogenesis

De novo formation of blood vessels during embryogenesis.

2

Angiogenesis

The process of new vessel formation in the mature organism (Neovascularization)

3

Arteriogenesis

Remodeling of existing arteries in response to chronic changes in pressure or flow.

4

What is the predominant cellular element in the vascular media?

vascular smooth muscle cells

5

What is intimal thickening?

- stereotypic response to vascular injury
- Vascular injury → endothelial cell loss/dysfunction → muscle cells growth and matrix synthesis → intimal thickening (neointima)

6

What is the difference between neointimal SM cells & medial SM cells?

Neointimal smooth muscle cells do not contract, but are able to divide.

7

What are the steps of the intimal thickening process?

1. Migration of smooth muscle cells to the intima
2. Smooth muscle cells mitosis
3. Elaboration of extracellular matrix

8

At what blood pressure is it considered hypertensive? Malignant hypertensive?

HYPERTENSION
Systolic > 139 mmHg, Diastolic > 89 mmHg

MALIGNANT
> 200/120 mmHg

9

What are the 2 classification of hypertension, and which one is more common?

1. idiopathic/primary/essential hypertension
2. secondary hypertension

idiopathic/primary/essential is more common.

10

What is the difference between the 2 classifications of hypertension?

1. idiopathic/primary/essential hypertension
- hereditary - familial/genetic factors
2. secondary hypertension
- caused by an identifiable underlying secondary cause

11

Hypertension causes what effects to the walls of large & medium arteries? What about to small blood vessels?

large & medium arteries:
- aortic dissection
- cerebrovascular hemorrhage
small blood vessels
- hyaline arteriolosclerosis
- hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis

12

What is an aortic dissection?

separation of aorta walls; tear in inner wall of aorta causes blood to flow betw layers of the wals of aorta, forcing layers apart

13

What is a cerebrovascular hemorrhage?

intracranial hemorrhage that occurs w/i brain tissue

14

What is hyaline arteriolosclerosis?

thickening/hardening of arteriole walls by deposition of hyaline material; narrowed lumen

15

What is hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis?

narrowed lumen; caused by malignant hypertension; prominent in kidney, can lead to schemia & acute renal failure

16

What are the 3 general patterns of arteriosclerosis? "Briefly" describe each of them.

1. Atherosclerosis – affects large elastic arteries (aorta and major branches) like heart attacks etc
2. Monckeberg’s medial calcific sclerosis – affects medium muscular arteries (arms and legs)
3. Arteriolosclerosis – affects arterioles

17

Between the ages 40 & 60, what has a fivefold increased incidence?

myocardial infarction

18

Why do males have a higher risk of atherosclerosis?

estrogen has an atheroprotective effect.

19

What is the "bad cholesterol" and what does it do?

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol - form of cholesterol delivered to peripheral tissue.

20

What is the "good cholesterol" and what does it do?

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) mobilizes cholesterol from tissue, transporting to the liver.

21

Higher levels of HDL have been correlated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis. T/F?

True!

On the other hand, higher levels of LDL are correlated with increased risk of atherosclerosis.

22

Hypertension increases risk of ____ by approx 60% and causes left ventricular hypertrophy.

IHD (ischemic heart disease)

23

Diabetes increases the risk of stroke and a 100-fold increased risk for what?

atherosclerosis-induced gangrene of lower extremeties

24

What is C-reactive protein?

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein and its concentration in serum reflects the inflammatory condition of the patient

25

What is the morphology of an atheromatous plaque?

a raised lesion w/ a soft, yellow, grumous core of lipid (mainly cholesterol) covered by a white fibrous cap

26

What is the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?

1. chronic endothelial injury
2. endothelial dysfunction
3. smooth muscle emigration from media to intima & macrophage activation
4. macrophages & SM cells engulf lipid
5. SM proliferation & other ECM deposition & extracellular lipid

27

What are some complications of atherosclerosis plaque changes?

1. Rupture, ulceration, or erosion → thrombosis → ischemia
2. Hemorrhage into a plaque
3. Atheroembolism
4. Aneurysm formation

28

What is the difference between vulnerable & stable atherosclerotic plaques?

- Vulnerable plaque, susceptible to rupture, ulceration or erosion of the luminal surface, with a thin fibrous cap, a large lipid core, and active inflammation (macrophages)

- Stable plaque, with densely collagenous and thickened fibrous cap with minimal inflammation

29

How can statins help reduce atherosclerosis formation/risk?

statins = a class of drugs which lowers circulating cholesterol levels (inhibit HMG-CoA reductase)

30

Difference between true and false aneurysm?

True aneurysms have an INTACT attenuated arterial wall or a thinned ventricular wall, while a false aneurysm involves a ventricular RUPTURE with an extravascular hematoma.

31

2 types of aneurysms?

sacular & fusiform

32

2 most important disorders predisposing to aortic aneurysms are?

atherosclerosis & hypertension

33

What is a berry aneurysm?

aka congenital aneurysm due to congenital weakness at bifurcation in Circle of Willis.

34

Aortic dissection usu occurs in what two groups?

1. Men aged 40-60 with hypertension
2. Younger patients with systemic or
localized abnormalities of connective tissue affecting the aorta (Marfan syndrome)

35

What is the morphology of an aortic dissection?

- Usually initiates w/ an intimal tear → extending the dissecting hematoma
- No inflammation
- Cystic medial degeneration as the most frequent pre-existing histologically detectable lesion

36

Difference between the 2 classifications of dissections? Which one has more serious complications?

A – Involves the ascending aorta and/or aortic arch, and possibly the descending aorta. It includes DeBakey types I and II.

B – Involves the descending aorta or the arch (distal to the left subclavian artery), without involvement of the ascending aorta. It includes DeBakey type III.

*The serious complications predominantly occur in type A dissections.

37

What is an example of a small vessel vasculitis?

granulomas, no asthma (Wegener granulomatosis)

38

What is an example of a medium vessel vasculitis?

immune complex mediated (polyarteritis nodosa)

39

What is an example of a large vessel vasculitis?

granulomatous disease (giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis)

40

What is the most common form of vasculitis among old people in US & Europe? And describe it briefly.

Giant-cell (temporal) arteritis: chronic, granulomatous inflammation of large to small-sized arteries; predominantly in head.
- has nodular intimal thickening, reduced luminal diameter, medial granulomatous inflammation, elastic lamina fragmentation
- ex. of large vessel vasculitis

41

What is an oral manifestation of giant-cell (temporal) arteritis?

tongue necrosis

42

What is polyarteritis nodosa (PAD)?

- systemic vasculitis of small or medium-sized muscular arteries (usu renal & visceral aa's)
- starts w/ segmental transmural necrotizing inflamm
- may lead to thrombosis

43

What is Wegener Granulomatosis?

- Acute necrotizing granulomas of U/L respiratory tract or both
- Necrotizing or granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized vessels
- Renal disease (necrotizing glomerulonephritis)

44

What is a useful marker of Wegener Granulomatosis's disease activity?

PR3-ANCAs

45

What is an oral manifestation of Wegener Granulomatosis?

strawberry gingivitis, palatal ulcers & perforation

46

What is Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)?

- Segmental, thrombosing, acute and chronic inflammation of medium-sized and small arteries (tibial and radial arteries)
- Almost exclusively in heavy smokers, > 35 years old

47

What are early manifestations of Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)? What are the chronic manifestations?

Early manifestations:
- Superficial nodular phelebitis
- Cold sensitivity of the Raynaud type in the hands
- Pain in the foot induced by exercise (instep claudication)

Chronic ulcerations followed in time by frank gangrene

48

What is the Raynaud Phenomenon?

- Fingers become white due to lack of blood flow, then blue as vessels dilate to keep blood in tissues, finally red as blood flow returns (RED, WHITE, & BLUE, BBY! 'MURICA)
- Results from an exaggerated vasoconstriction of digital arteries and arterioles

49

What are varicose veins?

- Abnormally dilated, tortuous veins

50

What is the cause of varicose veins?

prolonged, increased intraluminal pressure and loss of vessel wall
support

51

What is the diff betw Thrombophlebitis and Phlebothrombosis?

- Thrombophlebitis - inflammation of a vein w/ blood clot formation inside the vein

- Phlebothrombosis - thrombosis in vein w/o primary inflamm

52

Where are the majority of deep venous thrombosis (DVT)?

in deep leg veins (>90% of cases)

*Pulmonary embolism as a serious complication of DVT

53

What is Homan sign?

pain in the calf of the leg upon dorsiflexion of the foot with the leg extended that is diagnostic of thrombosis in the deep veins of the area

54

What is a vascular ectasia?

- Nevus Flammeous = most common form of vascular ectasia
- ectasia = local dilation
- telangiectasia = permanent dilation of pre-existing small vessels forming a red lesion

55

What is Sturge-Weber Syndrome (Encephalotrigeminal Angiomatosis)?

- a congenital disorder that is a special form of nevus flammeous
- ipsilateral venous angioma in cortical leptomeninges
- includes mental retardation, seizure, & hemiplegia ( paralysis of the arm, leg, and trunk on the same side of the body)

56

What is an arterio-venous (vascular) malformation?

- Uncommon errors on vascular morphogenesis
- Distinct from hemangioma (tumor of the endothelial cells that line BV’s)
- Not a neoplasm
- Present at birth but may not clinically evident
- Consist of abnormal channels lined by normal endothelium

57

What are the differences between vascular malformations VS infantile hemangioma?

Vascular malformation: present at birth, no rapid inc in size, no involution

Hemangioma: not always present at birth, rapid inc in size, involution

58

What is a pyogenic granuloma?

- Reactive Vascular Proliferations (Tumor-like Conditions)
- common, fast-growing lesion of the skin and mucous membranes
- Focal reactive growth of fibrovascular or granulation tissue with extensive endothelial cells proliferation
- gingiva = common site

59

Most common soft tissue tumors of infancy? And the common place for these tumors?

hemangioma (type of benign neoplasm); head & neck

60

What are the 2 types of lymphangiomas mentioned Describe them.

Lymphangiomas = benign neoplasms
- Types:
1. Simple (capillary) lymphangiomas:
raised lesions, up to 1-2 cm, predominantly seen in head, neck, and axillary subcutaneous tissues
2. Cavernous lymphangiomas (cystic hygromas): found in the neck or axilla of children, up to 15 cm in size

61

What is an angiosarcoma?

- malignant endothelial neoplasm affecting older adults
- could get angiosarcoma in setting of lymphedema in pts w/ breast cancer after radical mastectomy
- associated w/ radiation

62

What compound is associated w/ lung cancer & angiosarcomas of the liver and brain?

Polyvinyl Chloride

63

What is an endothelial marker for angiosarcoma?

diffuse positivity of tumoral cells for CD31

64

What is Kaposi Sarcoma (KS)?

- a malignant vascular neoplasm that is caused by humans herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)
- highly associated w/ AIDS
- 4 forms of KS: classic, endemic african, transplant-associated, AIDS-associated (epidemic)

65

What is the classic type of Kaposi Sarcoma?

- A disorder of older men
- Associated with malignancy or altered immunity but not with HIV infection
- As multiple red-purple skin plaques or nodules
- Usu in distal lower extremities

66

What is the Endemic African type of Kaposi Sarcoma?

- In HIV-seronegative individuals
- Younger than age 40
- Lymph nodes /visceral involvement
- Aggressive course

67

What is the transplant-associated type of Kaposi Sarcoma?

- In solid organ transplant recipients in the setting of T-cell immunosuppression
- Aggressive course
- Lymph nodes, mucosa, and visceral involvement

68

What is the AIDS-associated type of Kaposi Sarcoma?

- Most common HIV-related malignancy
- Often oral mucosa and lymph nodes involvement
- Palate and gingiva as most common locations in the mouth