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Flashcards in Periodontology Deck (20):
1

What instruments are used for Calculus Detection?

4 instruments: 1) Perio probe 2) EXD11/12 3) SG11/12 4) ODU11/12*contra angle shank design for better adaptation*small fine tip & rounded back for easier insertion

2

What are the characteristics of SUPRAgingival Calculus?

* whitish/yellow*hard with claylike consistency -- easily detachable* color influenced by food pigments, tobacco

3

Where is SUPRAgingival Calculus most commonly found?

Where the salivary glands are:*LINGUAL surface of Mandibular anteriors*BUCCAL surface of Maxillary molars

4

What are the characteristics of SUBgingival Calculus?

*dark brown/black (from hemoglobin)*hard and dense

5

How far does the subgingival calculus extend in the periodontal pocket?

to the base of the pocket but DOES NOT REACH JUNCTIONAL EPITHELIUM (pocket's always got that 1 mm shit free area at the base

6

Which teeth have the least prevalence of calculus?

PREMOLARS :)

7

How is subgingival calculus diagnosed for location and extent?

with an EXPLORER, like christopher columbus

8

Can calculus be detected radiographically?

Yes, as radiopaque projections into the interproximal space. BUT BUT BUT sensitivity of radiographs for calculus detection is low so stick to your probes.

9

What is the general composition of calculus?

70-90% inorganic content
10-30% organic content: protein-polysaccaride complexes, epithelial cells, leukocytes, bacteria

10

What is the difference in composition btwn SUPRA- and SUBgingival calculus?

SUB: has MORE hydroxyapatite, Mg whitlockite
HIGHER ratio of Ca3(PO4)3 and has NO SALIVARY PROTEINS
SUPRA: has more brushite, octacalcium phosphate (why? bc theres a lot of calcium in saliva)

11

What are the 4 models of calculus attachment?

1. via an organic pellicle-- on enamel
2. via mechanical interlocking-- into surface irregularities
3. via close adaptation-- of calculus undersurface depressions to sloping mounds of cementum
4. via penetration of bacterial calculus-- bacteria is NOT ALWAYS essential for calculus formation

12

What is Calculus?

Mineralized plaque, hardened by mineral precipitation

13

How quickly does calculus formation occur?

Within 4-8 hrs
*plaque 50% mineralized in 2 days
* 60-90% mineralized in 12 days
(may not undergo calicification at 100%)

14

What provides the minerals in calculus formation in SUPRA vs SUB gingival calculus?

SUPRA: saliva
SUB: Gingival Crevicular Fluid

15

Patients with a high concentration of ____________ in saliva are considered heavy calculus formers.

Phosphorus (3x more than normal)
*More calcium and less potassium as well

16

Plaque has _______ more calcium than saliva.

2-20x

17

What are the 2 theories of mineratlization?

1. local rise of Ca & PO4 saturation
2. Heterogeneous nucleation by seeding agents (intercellular matrix of plaque suspected

18

What would cause a local rise of Ca and PO4 saturation?

* pH increase of saliva
* salivary colloidal proteins that bind Ca and PO4 ions
* enzymes (phosphatases & esterases) released by bacteria and cells

19

True/False: Calculus contributes directly to inflammation.

FALSE. it does not contribute directly BUT promotes accumulation of plaque and its retention close to the gingiva

20

True/False: Subgingival calculus is the cause of periodontal pockets.

FALSE. it's the result of periodontal pockets.
Sterile calculus does NOT cause periodontal disease