Flashcards in Periodontology Deck (20):

1

## What instruments are used for Calculus Detection?

### 4 instruments: 1) Perio probe 2) EXD11/12 3) SG11/12 4) ODU11/12*contra angle shank design for better adaptation*small fine tip & rounded back for easier insertion

2

## What are the characteristics of SUPRAgingival Calculus?

### * whitish/yellow*hard with claylike consistency -- easily detachable* color influenced by food pigments, tobacco

3

## Where is SUPRAgingival Calculus most commonly found?

### Where the salivary glands are:*LINGUAL surface of Mandibular anteriors*BUCCAL surface of Maxillary molars

4

## What are the characteristics of SUBgingival Calculus?

### *dark brown/black (from hemoglobin)*hard and dense

5

## How far does the subgingival calculus extend in the periodontal pocket?

### to the base of the pocket but DOES NOT REACH JUNCTIONAL EPITHELIUM (pocket's always got that 1 mm shit free area at the base

6

## Which teeth have the least prevalence of calculus?

### PREMOLARS :)

7

## How is subgingival calculus diagnosed for location and extent?

### with an EXPLORER, like christopher columbus

8

## Can calculus be detected radiographically?

### Yes, as radiopaque projections into the interproximal space. BUT BUT BUT sensitivity of radiographs for calculus detection is low so stick to your probes.

9

## What is the general composition of calculus?

###
70-90% inorganic content

10-30% organic content: protein-polysaccaride complexes, epithelial cells, leukocytes, bacteria

10

## What is the difference in composition btwn SUPRA- and SUBgingival calculus?

###
SUB: has MORE hydroxyapatite, Mg whitlockite

HIGHER ratio of Ca3(PO4)3 and has NO SALIVARY PROTEINS

SUPRA: has more brushite, octacalcium phosphate (why? bc theres a lot of calcium in saliva)

11

## What are the 4 models of calculus attachment?

###
1. via an organic pellicle-- on enamel

2. via mechanical interlocking-- into surface irregularities

3. via close adaptation-- of calculus undersurface depressions to sloping mounds of cementum

4. via penetration of bacterial calculus-- bacteria is NOT ALWAYS essential for calculus formation

12

## What is Calculus?

### Mineralized plaque, hardened by mineral precipitation

13

## How quickly does calculus formation occur?

###
Within 4-8 hrs

*plaque 50% mineralized in 2 days

* 60-90% mineralized in 12 days

(may not undergo calicification at 100%)

14

## What provides the minerals in calculus formation in SUPRA vs SUB gingival calculus?

###
SUPRA: saliva

SUB: Gingival Crevicular Fluid

15

## Patients with a high concentration of ____________ in saliva are considered heavy calculus formers.

###
Phosphorus (3x more than normal)

*More calcium and less potassium as well

16

## Plaque has _______ more calcium than saliva.

### 2-20x

17

## What are the 2 theories of mineratlization?

###
1. local rise of Ca & PO4 saturation

2. Heterogeneous nucleation by seeding agents (intercellular matrix of plaque suspected

18

## What would cause a local rise of Ca and PO4 saturation?

###
* pH increase of saliva

* salivary colloidal proteins that bind Ca and PO4 ions

* enzymes (phosphatases & esterases) released by bacteria and cells

19

## True/False: Calculus contributes directly to inflammation.

### FALSE. it does not contribute directly BUT promotes accumulation of plaque and its retention close to the gingiva

20