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Flashcards in Path Final Additional cards 2 Deck (333):
1

IgM is the natural antibody against what?

ABO blood group ag.

2

Which Ig has the smallest molecular weight?

IgG.

3

When will IgG be produced?

Small amounts produced on initial immunization and boosted on re-exposure.

4

IgG's act as an opsonin which is what?

bacteria coating and phagocytosis.

5

IgA will be mainly found where?

In mucosal secretions; milk, tears, respiratory, GI tract.

6

What is the function of IgA?

Protective.

7

What Ig is secreted by sensitized plasma cells in tissues?

IgE.

8

IgE are attached locally to what?

Mast cells.

9

What is the function of IgE's?

mediates allergic reactions in tissues, and to protect against parasites.

10

Where are IgD's found at?

Cell membrane-bound found exclusively on B cells.

11

What is the function of the IgD?

participates in antigenic activation of B cells

12

Which of the Ig's will not be released in the serum?

IgD.

13

What is the Major Histocompatiblity complex essential for?

presentation of antigens to T cells.

14

The major histocompatibility complex is AKA?

human leukocyte antigen (HLA).

15

What is an immunologic finger print unique to me?

my major histocopmatibility complex.

16

What are the 2 groups of the major histocompatibilty complex?

Type I and Type II.

17

The type I major histocompatibility complex has receptors for what?

CD8+ or the T suppressor or cytotoxic cells.

18

The type II major histocompatibility complex reacts with what?

CD4+ or the T-helper cells.

19

What are the antigen-presenting cells of the major histocompatibility complex?

Macrophages, and B cells if antigen is internalized.

20

What is the function of the Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?

To present antigens to T cells.

21

T cells can only react to membrane-bound antigens and this means what?

Without Antigen presenting cells T cell will have no reaction to antigens.

22

MHC type I is a receptor for the CD8+ cells and are found where?

On all nucleated cells of the body.

23

MCH type I links what to what?

CD8+ or the T suppressor or cytotoxic cells to antigen presenting cells (APC).

24

MCH type II react with the CD4+ or T helper cells and this will lead to what?

antigen presenting cells to Helper T lymphocytes. This serves as a presentation of exogenous antigens that are first internalized and processed.

25

MHC is AKA?

HLA or human leukocyte antigen.

26

Type I hypersensitive reaction is due to what?

Anaphylactic.

27

Type II hypersensitive reaction is due to what?

Cytotoxic antibody mediated.

28

Type III hypersensitive reaction is due to what?

Immune complex mediated.

29

Type IV hypersensitive reaction is due to what?

Cell mediated, delayed type.

30

Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by what?

IgE, mast or basophils.

31

Type I hypersensitivity takes how long to respond?

4-6 hours.

32

Is hay fever always seasonal?

No.

33

What are the treatments for Type I hypersensitivity?

anti-histamines, Vitamin C, Desensitization.

34

Asthma is what type of hypersensitivity?

Type I.

35

Type I hypersensitivty associated with asthma affects what?

Bronchi.

36

Will asthma always be a hypersensitivty disease?

No there are many types.

37

Hypersensitive asthma is due to an inhaled antigen mediated by what?

SRS-As a slow release.

38

What supplement can relax the airways?

Magnesium.

39

What is a side effect of magnesium?

It relaxes the smooth muscle and can lead to a warm feeling.

40

Atopic dermatitis is a type I hypersensivity and it is typically a _____ disease.

Childhood.

41

Atopic dermatitis is aka?

Eczema.

42

what % of children get atopic dermatitis?

10%.

43

OF the 10% of children that get atopic dermatitis how many of them have family history of atopic dermatitis?

50%.

44

How will allergen that causes atopic dermatitis enter the body?

inhaled, ingested in food, or skin contact.

45

Atopic deramtitis is sometimes treated with corticosteroids and this can cause what?

Asthma/hay fever later in life.

46

What is a severe sytemic response to an allergen called?

Anaphylactic shock.

47

Anaphylactic shock is what type of hypersensitve reaction?

Type I.

48

What happens with anaphylactic shock?

A massive release of histamine/other vasoactive substances.

49

What are the signs of anaphylactic shock?

chocking, wheezing, shortness of breath.

50

What is the treatment of anaphylactic shock?

epinephrine STAT, high flow O2 non-rebreather.

51

What type of hypersensitivity is associated with autoimmune diseases?

Type II.

52

What causes Type II hypersensitivity?

Cytotoxic antibody that reacts to antigen in cells or tissue components.

53

With type II hypersensitivity the antigen can be where?

Extrinsic or intrinsic.

54

Type II hypersensitivity is mediated by what Ig's?

IgG or IgM.

55

Type II hypersensitivity activates the complement system which will do what?

Lysis of cell.

56

Give an example of a type II hypersensitive reaction?

Blood transfusion mismatch.

57

What type of hypersensitive reaction is hemolytic anemia?

Type II.

58

What is hemolytic anemia?

A systemic autoimmune disorder can be caused by foreign chemicals.

59

Goodpasture's syndrome involves what pathologies?

renal and pulmonary.

60

What causes goodpastures syndrome?

autoimmune to component of Type IV collagen.

61

What type of hypersensitivity is goodpasture's syndrome?

Type II.

62

What are the signs and symptoms of goodpastures syndrome?

Hemoptysis (coughing of blood), and hematuria.

63

What blood type can type A blood give to?

A, AB

64

What blood type can type B blood give to?

B, AB

65

What blood type can type AB blood give to?

AB

66

What blood type can type O blood give to?

O, AB, A, B

67

What blood type can type A receive from?

A, O

68

What blood type can type B receive from?

B, O

69

What blood type can type AB receive from?

AB, A, B, O

70

What blood type can type O receive from?

O

71

What is the most common minor blood group antigen?

Rh.

72

What is the major blood group antigens?

A and B.

73

Blood type A can give blood to who?

A and AB.

74

Blood type A can get blood from who?

A,O.

75

Blood type B can give blood to who?

B, AB.

76

Blood type B can get blood from who?

B, O.

77

Blood type AB can give blood to who?

Type AB.

78

Blood type AB can get blood from who?

Universal (so A,B,AB, O).

79

Bood type O can give blood to who?

Universal (so A,B,AB, O).

80

Bood type O can get blood from who?

O.

81

Rh factor is important in what?

Mother being - and baby being +, but only after mother is sensitized so can affect second birth.

82

The Rh factor causing problems with pregnancy is prevented by what?

Rhogam.

83

Fetal hydrops is caused by Rh factor incompatibility and leads to what?

Pleural effusion, ascites, scalp edema.

84

Which Vitamins are Fat soluable?

A,D,E,K.

85

Fat soluable absorption is dependent on what?

Gut and pancreas.

86

Why are fat soluable vitamins more toxic than Water soluable?

Because they accumulate in Fat.

87

What can cause fat soluable deficencies?

Malabsorption syndromes like cystic fibrosis and sprue, or mineral oil intake.

88

Which of the Water soluable vitamins can't be washed out easy and where will it be stored?

B12, folate stored in the liver.

89

Vitamin A is what Nutrient?

Retinol.

90

What are the 4 functins of retinol aka Vitamin A?

1. Rhodoposin formation. 2. Integrity of epithelia. 3. Lysosome stability. 4. Glycoprotein synthesis.

91

What will Rhodopsin do?

It is a photoreceptor pigment in the retina known as retinal.

92

What will Vitamin A deficiencies cause?

Night blindness, dry skin, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xeropthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children.

93

What will Vitamin A toxicity cause?

Headache, fatigue, skin changes, hepatospleomegaly, bone thickening/arthralgias, intracranial hypertension, and papilledema.

94

What nutrient(s) will vitamin D be?

Cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol.

95

What are the 4 functions of cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka Vitamin D?

Ca and P absorption, mineralization and repair of bone, tubular reabsorption of Ca, insulin and thyroid function.

96

Vitamin D helps with insulin and thyroid function which leads to what?

Immune function, reduces autoimmune disease.

97

A cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka vitamin D deficiency leads to what?

Rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany.

98

What will Vitamin D toxicity lead to?

Hypercalcemiam anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.

99

D2 and D3 what type of Vitamin D are they?

D2-ergocalciferol. D3-cholecalciferol.

100

What type of Vitamin D comes from milk and what kind comes from the sun?

milk-D2. Sun-D3.

101

What is 25-OH D3?

Storage form of Vitamin D.

102

What is 1,25 (OH)2 D3?

Active form of Vitamin D.

103

Excess Vitamin D is seen in what?

Sarcoidosis.

104

What is sarcoidosis?

disease where the pithelioid macrophages convert vitamin D inot its active form.

105

What degree latitude do you need to live below to get enough vitamin D from the sun?

the 37th.

106

What levels of Vitamin D will make you deficient, insufficient, sufficient, and toxic?

Deficient- 20 ng/ml. Insufficient- 20-29 ng/ml. Sufficient- 30 ng/ML (Dr. R says 50). Toxic- more than 150 ng/ml.

107

What nutrient(s) will vitamin E be?

Alpha-tocopherol, other tocopherols.

108

What are the 2 functions of alpha-tocopherol and other tocopherols aka vitamin E?

intracellular antioxidant, scavenger of free radicals in biologic MEMBRANES.

109

What will a Vitmain E deficieny lead to?

RBC hemolysis/fragility, neurologic deficits.

110

What will a vitamin E toxicity lead to?

Tendency to bleed.

111

What is the most active form of Vitamin E?

a-tocopherol.

112

How many known forms of Vitamin E are there?

There are 8.

113

What nutrient(s) will Vitamin K be?

Phyloquinone, menaquinones.

114

Where will phyloquinones and menaquinoes come from?

Phyloquinone-plant. Menaquinones-animals.

115

What are the functions of the -quinones aka vitamin K?

formation of prothrombin and other coagulation factors and bone proteins.

116

What will a vitamin K deficiency lead to?

Bleeding due to deficiency of prothrombin and other factors, osteopenia.

117

What are the vitamin K dependent clotting factors?

II, VII, IX, X and protein C and S.

118

What is a vitamin K antagonist?

Warfarin.

119

Where can vitamin K be synthesized?

In intestine by flora.

120

What can lead to a vitamin K deficiency?

Prolonged use of broad spectrum antibiotics.

121

Vitamin B1 is aka?

Thiamin.

122

What is the function of Thiamin aka vitamin B1?

Carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucosem and alcohol metabolism. Central and peripheral nerve cell function, myocardial function.

123

A vitamin B1 or thiamin deficiency causes what?

Beriberi, Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

124

What are the 2 types of Beriberi?

wet and dry.

125

What is wet and dry beriberi?

Dry- polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting. Wet- high output cardiac failure, edema.

126

Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is seen when?

seen in alcoholism and malnutrition.

127

Vitamin B2 is aka?

Riboflavin/ R-5-P (riboflavin-5-phosphate).

128

What are the 2 functions of vitamin B2 aka Riboflavin?

1. Carbohydrate and protein metabolism. 2. Integrity of mucous membranes.

129

What will a vitamin B2 aka Riboflacvin deficiency lead to?

Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, corneal vascularization.

130

Vitamin B3 is aka?

Niacin.

131

What are the different types of Niacin or vitamin B3?

Nicotininc acid, nicotinamide, niacinamide.

132

What are the 2 functions of Niacin?

1. Oxidation-reduction reactions [NADP+]. 2. carbohydrate cell metabolism [NAD+, (B3=3atp]

133

Vitamin B3 and B2 equal how many ATP?

b2=2. B3=3.

134

What will Vitamin B3 aka the niacins cause when deficient?

the 4 D's. Dermatitis, diarrhea, Dementia, and Death.

135

The 4 D's or a vitamin B3 deficiency is known as what?

Pellagra.

136

What will vitamin B3 aka niacin cause with toxic amounts?

Flushing (feels like a heart attack).

137

Niacin is made by the body from what?

Tryptophan.

138

Synthesis of niacin from tryptophan requires what?

B6.

139

niacin can be a treatment for what?

High Cholesterol.

140

Vitamin B5 is aka?

Pantothenate, dexpathenol.

141

What is the function of pantothenate, dexpathenol aka vitamin B5?

Constituent of CoA (a cofactor for acyl transfers) and component of fatty acid synthase.

142

What will a pantothenate, dexpathenol aka vitamin B5 deficiency lead to?

Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency.

143

Vitamin B6 is aka what?

Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, converted to pyridoxal PO4. Ladies vitamin.

144

Why is vitamin B6 aka the ladies vitamin?

It is important in the menstral cycle.

145

What are the 3 functions of vitamin B6?

1. Many aspects of nitrogen metabolism, porphyrin and heme synthesis, tryptophan conversion to niacin, glycogen phosphorylase. 2. Nucleic acid biosynthesis?decarboxylation reactions. 3. Fatty acid, lipid an

146

What will vitamin B6 deficiency lead to?

Seizures, anemia, neuropathiesm seborrheic dermatitis.

147

A vitamin B6 deficiency can be induced by what?

INH and oral contraceptives.

148

Vitamin B6 toxicity leads to what?

Peripheral neuropathy.

149

Vitamin B12 is aka?

Cobalamins (cyano-, hydroxy-, methyl-).

150

What are the functions of the cobalamins aka Vitamin B12?

Maturation of RBC's, neural function, DNA synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair

151

What will a cobalamine aka vitamin B12 deficieny cause?

Megaloblastic anemia, neurologic deficits, glossitis.

152

Vitamin B12 is only found where?

In animals.

153

Vitamin B12 is only synthesized by what?

Microorganisms.

154

Vitamin B12 is stored where?

Liver.

155

How much Cobalamins aka vitamin B12 can be stored in the liver?

Large reserves for several years.

156

What will cause a Cobalamine aka vitamin B12 deficiency?

Malabsorption, lack of intrinsic factor, or absence of terminal ileum.

157

What test is used to detect the etiology of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Shilling test.

158

Vitamin B12 aka cobalamine is the cofactor for what?

Homocysteine methyltransferase (transfers CH3 groups as methylcoablamin), and mehtylmalonyl-CoA mutase.

159

With a vitamin B12 deficency due to decreased methionine or increased methylmalonic acid what happens?

Abnormal myelin. This leads to the neurologic deficits.

160

Vitamin B9 is aka what?

Folate, folic acid, THF.

161

What are the 3 functions of folate/folic acid?

1. Maturation of RBC. 2. Synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and methionine. 3. Development of fetal nervous system.

162

What will a folate or folic acid deficiency cause?

Megaloblastic anemia, neural tube birth defects, mental confusion.

163

Of all the vitamins which one has the most common deficiency in the USA?

Folate, folic acid, THF.

164

How long will folate, folic acid, THF be stored for?

Not long so eat green leaves.

165

Vitamin C is aka?

Ascorbic acid.

166

What are 4 functions of vitamin C aka ascorbic acid?

1. Collagen formation. 2. Bone and blood vessel health. 3. Carnitine, hormone, and amino acid formation. 4. Wound healing.

167

A vitamin C deficiency leads to what?

Scurvy, poor wound healing.

168

Vitamin C facilitates absorption of what?

Iron by keeping iron in the Fe2+ reduced state.

169

Vitamin C is a necessary cofactor for what?

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase.

170

What will dopamine beta-hydroxylase do?

Converts dopamine to Norepinephron. So vitamin C is important in adrenal function.

171

Vitamin B7 is aka?

Biotin.

172

What is the function of biotin?

It is a cofactor for 3 reactions.

173

What are the 3 reactions that biotin is needed for as a cofactor?

1. pyruvate---> ocaloacetate. 2. Acety-CoA---> malonyl-CoA. 3. Propionyl-CoA----> methylmalonyl-CoA.

174

What will a Biotin deficiency lead to?

Dermatitis, enteritis.

175

What causes a Biotin deficiency?

Antibiotic use and excessive ingestion of raw eggs.

176

What will raw eggs do to biotin?

The AVIDIN in egg whites avidly binds biotin.

177

What is the function of zinc?

Immune, metaloprotienase, BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy) prevention

178

What will a zinc deficiency cause?

Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis.

179

What is the doctor dogma of zinc deficiency?

Hangnails.

180

What can we eat to get iron in our diet?

Raisens.

181

How much Ca/P do we need a day?

2,000 mg/day.

182

What is Kwashiorkor?

Protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions, edema, liver malfunction (fatty changes).

183

What will Kwashiorkors be caused by?

MEAL. Malnutrition, Edema, Anemia, Liver (fatty).

184

What would someone with Kwashiorkors look like?

A child with a swollen belly.

185

What is Marasmus?

Energy malnutrition resulting in tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat, and variable edema.

186

What amino acid deficiency will affect Heme?

Glycine.

187

What amino acid deficiency will affect creatine, urea, and nitric acid?

Arginine.

188

Which Vitamins are Fat soluable?

A,D,E,K.

189

Fat soluable absorption is dependent on what?

Gut and pancreas.

190

Why are fat soluable vitamins more toxic than Water soluable?

Because they accumulate in Fat.

191

What can cause fat soluable deficencies?

Malabsorption syndromes like cystic fibrosis and sprue, or mineral oil intake.

192

Which of the Water soluable vitamins can't be washed out easy and where will it be stored?

B12, folate stored in the liver.

193

Vitamin A is what Nutrient?

Retinol.

194

What are the 4 functins of retinol aka Vitamin A?

1. Rhodoposin formation. 2. Integrity of epithelia. 3. Lysosome stability. 4. Glycoprotein synthesis.

195

What will Rhodopsin do?

It is a photoreceptor pigment in the retina known as retinal.

196

What will Vitamin A deficiencies cause?

Night blindness, dry skin, perifollicular hyperkeratosis, xeropthalmia, keratomalacia, increased morbidity and mortality in young children.

197

What will Vitamin A toxicity cause?

Headache, fatigue, skin changes, hepatospleomegaly, bone thickening/arthralgias, intracranial hypertension, and papilledema.

198

What nutrient(s) will vitamin D be?

Cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol.

199

What are the 4 functions of cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka Vitamin D?

Ca and P absorption, mineralization and repair of bone, tubular reabsorption of Ca, insulin and thyroid function.

200

Vitamin D helps with insulin and thyroid function which leads to what?

Immune function, reduces autoimmune disease.

201

A cholecalciferol/ergocalciferol aka vitamin D deficiency leads to what?

Rickets, osteomalacia, and hypocalcemic tetany.

202

What will Vitamin D toxicity lead to?

Hypercalcemiam anorexia, renal failure, metastatic calcifications.

203

D2 and D3 what type of Vitamin D are they?

D2-ergocalciferol. D3-cholecalciferol.

204

What type of Vitamin D comes from milk and what kind comes from the sun?

milk-D2. Sun-D3.

205

What is 25-OH D3?

Storage form of Vitamin D.

206

What is 1,25 (OH)2 D3?

Active form of Vitamin D.

207

Excess Vitamin D is seen in what?

Sarcoidosis.

208

What is sarcoidosis?

disease where the pithelioid macrophages convert vitamin D inot its active form.

209

What degree latitude do you need to live below to get enough vitamin D from the sun?

the 37th.

210

What levels of Vitamin D will make you deficient, insufficient, sufficient, and toxic?

Deficient- 20 ng/ml. Insufficient- 20-29 ng/ml. Sufficient- 30 ng/ML (Dr. R says 50). Toxic- more than 150 ng/ml.

211

What nutrient(s) will vitamin E be?

Alpha-tocopherol, other tocopherols.

212

What are the 2 functions of alpha-tocopherol and other tocopherols aka vitamin E?

intracellular antioxidant, scavenger of free radicals in biologic MEMBRANES.

213

What will a Vitmain E deficieny lead to?

RBC hemolysis/fragility, neurologic deficits.

214

What will a vitamin E toxicity lead to?

Tendency to bleed.

215

What is the most active form of Vitamin E?

a-tocopherol.

216

How many known forms of Vitamin E are there?

There are 8.

217

What nutrient(s) will Vitamin K be?

Phyloquinone, menaquinones.

218

Where will phyloquinones and menaquinoes come from?

Phyloquinone-plant. Menaquinones-animals.

219

What are the functions of the -quinones aka vitamin K?

formation of prothrombin and other coagulation factors and bone proteins.

220

What will a vitamin K deficiency lead to?

Bleeding due to deficiency of prothrombin and other factors, osteopenia.

221

What are the vitamin K dependent clotting factors?

II, VII, IX, X and protein C and S.

222

What is a vitamin K antagonist?

Warfarin.

223

Where can vitamin K be synthesized?

In intestine by flora.

224

What can lead to a vitamin K deficiency?

Prolonged use of broad spectrum antibiotics.

225

Vitamin B1 is aka?

Thiamin.

226

What is the function of Thiamin aka vitamin B1?

Carbohydrate, fat, amino acid, glucosem and alcohol metabolism. Central and peripheral nerve cell function, myocardial function.

227

A vitamin B1 or thiamin deficiency causes what?

Beriberi, Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome.

228

What are the 2 types of Beriberi?

wet and dry.

229

What is wet and dry beriberi?

Dry- polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting. Wet- high output cardiac failure, edema.

230

Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is seen when?

seen in alcoholism and malnutrition.

231

Vitamin B2 is aka?

Riboflavin/ R-5-P (riboflavin-5-phosphate).

232

What are the 2 functions of vitamin B2 aka Riboflavin?

1. Carbohydrate and protein metabolism. 2. Integrity of mucous membranes.

233

What will a vitamin B2 aka Riboflacvin deficiency lead to?

Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, corneal vascularization.

234

Vitamin B3 is aka?

Niacin.

235

What are the different types of Niacin or vitamin B3?

Nicotininc acid, nicotinamide, niacinamide.

236

What are the 2 functions of Niacin?

1. Oxidation-reduction reactions [NADP+]. 2. carbohydrate cell metabolism [NAD+, (B3=3atp]

237

Vitamin B3 and B2 equal how many ATP?

b2=2. B3=3.

238

What will Vitamin B3 aka the niacins cause when deficient?

the 4 D's. Dermatitis, diarrhea, Dementia, and Death.

239

The 4 D's or a vitamin B3 deficiency is known as what?

Pellagra.

240

What will vitamin B3 aka niacin cause with toxic amounts?

Flushing (feels like a heart attack).

241

Niacin is made by the body from what?

Tryptophan.

242

Synthesis of niacin from tryptophan requires what?

B6.

243

niacin can be a treatment for what?

High Cholesterol.

244

Vitamin B5 is aka?

Pantothenate, dexpathenol.

245

What is the function of pantothenate, dexpathenol aka vitamin B5?

Constituent of CoA (a cofactor for acyl transfers) and component of fatty acid synthase.

246

What will a pantothenate, dexpathenol aka vitamin B5 deficiency lead to?

Dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency.

247

Vitamin B6 is aka what?

Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, converted to pyridoxal PO4. Ladies vitamin.

248

Why is vitamin B6 aka the ladies vitamin?

It is important in the menstral cycle.

249

What are the 3 functions of vitamin B6?

1. Many aspects of nitrogen metabolism, porphyrin and heme synthesis, tryptophan conversion to niacin, glycogen phosphorylase. 2. Nucleic acid biosynthesis?decarboxylation reactions. 3. Fatty acid, lipid an

250

What will vitamin B6 deficiency lead to?

Seizures, anemia, neuropathiesm seborrheic dermatitis.

251

A vitamin B6 deficiency can be induced by what?

INH and oral contraceptives.

252

Vitamin B6 toxicity leads to what?

Peripheral neuropathy.

253

Vitamin B12 is aka?

Cobalamins (cyano-, hydroxy-, methyl-).

254

What are the functions of the cobalamins aka Vitamin B12?

Maturation of RBC's, neural function, DNA synthesis, myelin synthesis and repair

255

What will a cobalamine aka vitamin B12 deficieny cause?

Megaloblastic anemia, neurologic deficits, glossitis.

256

Vitamin B12 is only found where?

In animals.

257

Vitamin B12 is only synthesized by what?

Microorganisms.

258

Vitamin B12 is stored where?

Liver.

259

How much Cobalamins aka vitamin B12 can be stored in the liver?

Large reserves for several years.

260

What will cause a Cobalamine aka vitamin B12 deficiency?

Malabsorption, lack of intrinsic factor, or absence of terminal ileum.

261

What test is used to detect the etiology of a vitamin B12 deficiency?

Shilling test.

262

Vitamin B12 aka cobalamine is the cofactor for what?

Homocysteine methyltransferase (transfers CH3 groups as methylcoablamin), and mehtylmalonyl-CoA mutase.

263

With a vitamin B12 deficency due to decreased methionine or increased methylmalonic acid what happens?

Abnormal myelin. This leads to the neurologic deficits.

264

Vitamin B9 is aka what?

Folate, folic acid, THF.

265

What are the 3 functions of folate/folic acid?

1. Maturation of RBC. 2. Synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and methionine. 3. Development of fetal nervous system.

266

What will a folate or folic acid deficiency cause?

Megaloblastic anemia, neural tube birth defects, mental confusion.

267

Of all the vitamins which one has the most common deficiency in the USA?

Folate, folic acid, THF.

268

How long will folate, folic acid, THF be stored for?

Not long so eat green leaves.

269

Vitamin C is aka?

Ascorbic acid.

270

What are 4 functions of vitamin C aka ascorbic acid?

1. Collagen formation. 2. Bone and blood vessel health. 3. Carnitine, hormone, and amino acid formation. 4. Wound healing.

271

A vitamin C deficiency leads to what?

Scurvy, poor wound healing.

272

Vitamin C facilitates absorption of what?

Iron by keeping iron in the Fe2+ reduced state.

273

Vitamin C is a necessary cofactor for what?

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase.

274

What will dopamine beta-hydroxylase do?

Converts dopamine to Norepinephron. So vitamin C is important in adrenal function.

275

Vitamin B7 is aka?

Biotin.

276

What is the function of biotin?

It is a cofactor for 3 reactions.

277

What are the 3 reactions that biotin is needed for as a cofactor?

1. pyruvate---> ocaloacetate. 2. Acety-CoA---> malonyl-CoA. 3. Propionyl-CoA----> methylmalonyl-CoA.

278

What will a Biotin deficiency lead to?

Dermatitis, enteritis.

279

What causes a Biotin deficiency?

Antibiotic use and excessive ingestion of raw eggs.

280

What will raw eggs do to biotin?

The AVIDIN in egg whites avidly binds biotin.

281

What is the function of zinc?

Immune, metaloprotienase, BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy) prevention

282

What will a zinc deficiency cause?

Delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, decreased adult hair, may predispose to alcoholic cirrhosis.

283

What is the doctor dogma of zinc deficiency?

Hangnails.

284

What can we eat to get iron in our diet?

Raisens.

285

How much Ca/P do we need a day?

2,000 mg/day.

286

What is Kwashiorkor?

Protein malnutrition resulting in skin lesions, edema, liver malfunction (fatty changes).

287

What will Kwashiorkors be caused by?

MEAL. Malnutrition, Edema, Anemia, Liver (fatty).

288

What would someone with Kwashiorkors look like?

A child with a swollen belly.

289

What is Marasmus?

Energy malnutrition resulting in tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat, and variable edema.

290

What amino acid deficiency will affect Heme?

Glycine.

291

What amino acid deficiency will affect creatine, urea, and nitric acid?

Arginine.

292

what is the cancer type for Cushing's syndrome?

small-cell carcinoma of the lung

293

What is the cause of cushing's syndrome?

ACTH

294

what is the cancer type causing SIADH?

Small cell lung carcinoma and intracranial neoplasms

295

What is the cause of SIADH?

ADH

296

What are the cancer type causing hypercalcemia?

1) squamous cell carcinoma of the lung2) Breast carcinoma3) Renal cell carcinoma

297

What is the cause of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung induced hypercalcemia?

PTH-like polypeptide

298

What is the cause of breast carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma induced hypercalcemia?

TGF-alpha

299

What is the cancer type causing venous thrombosis?

Pancreatic carcinoma

300

What is the cause of venous thrombosis?

Thromboplastin

301

What is the cancer type causing polycythemia?

Renal cell carcinoma and hemangioblastoma

302

What is the cause of polycythemia?

Erythropoietin

303

What is the cancer type causing Myasthenia gravis?

Thymoma, small cell lung carcinoma

304

What is the cause of Myasthenia gravis?

antibody to acetylcholine receptor at NMJ

305

What is the cancer type causing Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscular weakness)?

Small-cell carcinoma of the lung

306

What is the cause of Lambert-Eaton syndrome (muscular weakness)?

Antibody to pre-synaptic calcium channels in nerve axons

307

What is the cancer type causing Gout, urate nephropathy?

leukemias and lymphomas

308

What is the cause of Gout, urate nephropathy?

Hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (or cytotoxic therapy)

309

A white infarct is typical of what?

`Arterial occlusion in solid organs with single blood supply. (ie: heart, kidney, spleen)

310

Red infarct is typical of what?

Venous obstruction like intestines and testes twisting.

311

The fate of infarcts depends on what?

Their anatomical site, type of cells forming the tissue, circulatory status , extent of necrosis.

312

What areas do white infarcts occur on organs?

Rimmed areas

313

What is a volvulus?

Twisting

314

What type of infarct is seen with volvulus?

Red infarct

315

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody antinuclear antibodies (ANA)?

SLE

316

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody Anti-dsDNA, anti-smith?

Specific for SLE

317

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody antihistone?

Drug-induced lupus

318

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody Anti-IgG (rhematoid factor)

Rheumatoid arthritis

319

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anticentromere?

Scleroderm (CReST)

320

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody Anti-Scl-70

Scleroderma (diffuse)

321

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody antimitochondrial?

Primary biliary cirrhosis

322

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody antigliadin?

Celiac disease

323

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-basement membrane?

Goodpasture's syndrome

324

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-epithelial cell

Pemphigus vulgaris

325

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody antimicrosomal, antithyroglobulin?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

326

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-Jo-1

Polymyositis, dermatomysositis

327

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-SS-A (anti-Ro)

Sjogren's syndrome

328

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-SS-B (anti-La)

Sjogren's syndrome

329

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody Anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)

Mixed CT disease

330

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody Anti-smooth muscle?

Autoimmune hepatitis

331

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody anti-glutamate decarboxylase?

type 1 diabetes mellitus

332

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody c-ANCA?

Wegener's granulomatosis

333

What is the associated disorder of the autoantibody p-ANCA

Other vasculitides