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Flashcards in Pathologies Deck (19)
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What is muscle strain?

Over-stretching of muscle fibrils or the tendon.


What is a muscle tear?

the muscles tears and is no longer whole.


What are the treatments of muscle strain and tear?

RICE, herbal medicine, acupuncture, nutritional support (anti-inflammatory and tissue repair). If torn, avoid heat, exercise and massage


What is impingement syndrome?

Sub-acromial space (space between humeral heat and the roof of the shoulder) has a bursae and rotator cuff tendons (they connect humerus and scapula). When the tendons or bursar become inflamed or torn this causes impingement syndrome.


What are the causes of impingement syndrome?

Overuse, increasing age, positional fault (head of humerus does not sit properly), bone spurs, oddly sizes acromion causing reduce space.


What are the signs and symptoms of impingement syndrome?

shoulder ache, pain when abducting the shoulder or rotating, painful arc, weakness and inability to raise the arm


What is the treatment of impingement syndrome?

manual therapy, exercise, cortisone injection, anti-inflammatory, surgery, herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, nutritional support (anti-inflammatory)


What is fibromyalgia?

Wide spread muscular and connective tissue pain, joint stiffness and fatigue. Neurological basis - abnormalities in pain processing by CNS. Very little finding on physical examination.


What are the causes of fibromyalgia?

Stress/trauma, more common in women (15:1), sleep dysregulation, toxic load, serotonin and noradrenaline deficiencies, high levels of substance P causes nerves more sensitive to pain


What are the signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia?

Pain that results from gentle pressure at specific tender spots, sleep disturbance, difficulty swallowing, bowel and bladder probe, IBS, anxiety, depression


What are the treatments of fibromyalgia?

Medications (anti-depressants for symtoms), exercise, counselling, acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy, nutritional (nerve and muscular function, anti-inflammatory)


What are muscular dystrophies?

A group of diseases that are inherited muscular disease that cause degeneration and muscle weakness.


What is myasthenia gravis?

Autoimmune disease causes by muscle fatigue and weakness.


What is the cause of myasthenia gravis?

antibodies block ACh receptors on motor end plate preventing nerve impulse to be sent to muscle fibres causes muscle weakness. More common in women.


What is the sign and symptoms of myasthenia gravis?

weakness of ocular muscles, double vision, ptosis (dropping of upper eye lid), weakness in facial muscles, speech, chewing and swallowing difficulties, death from respirator muscles failing.


What is the treatment of myasthenia gravis?

ACh-ase inhibitors, corticosteroids, plasma exchange, herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, nutritional (calcium and magnesium)


What is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy?

Single gene defect on X-chromosome, affects males and females carry. They lack a protein called dystrophin which anchors cytoskeleton to extracellular matrix. If no dystrophin then when cell contracts there is no support so this cause a leaky cell membrane. This causes muscle degeneration and necrosis.


What are the signs and symptoms of duchenne muscular dystrophy?

delayed walking, waddling gait, clamminess, limb weakness, speech delay, Gowers sign


What treatments are for duchenee muscular dystrophy/

Poor prognosis and cardio-respiratory failure in late 20s. Support with walking, managing scoliosis, nutrition and weight management.