Pathology: Cardiovascular Tumors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology: Cardiovascular Tumors Deck (44):
1

1

Benign Neoplasms: Developmental and Aquired Condtions

  • Name the Hemangiomas (4)
  • Name the Lymphangiomas (3)
  • Name the Vascular Ectasiases (3)
  • Name the reacive Vascular prolierations (1)

  • Name the Hemangiomas (4)
    1. Capillary Hemangioma
    2. Cavevernous Hemangioma
    3. Pyogenic Granuloma
    4. Juvenile (strawberry)
  • Name the Lymphangiomas (3)
    1. Simple (Capillary) Lymphangioma
    2. Cavernous Lymphangioma (Cystic hgroma)
    3. Glomus Tumory
  • Name the Vascular Ectasiases (3)
    1. Nevus Flammeus
    2. Spider Telangiectasia (Arterial Spider)
    3. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasas aka Osler-Weber-Rendu
  • Name the reacive Vascular prolierations (1)
    1. ​Bacillary Angiomatosi 

2

Intermediate-Grade Neoplasms and Malignant Neoplams

  • Name the Intermediate-Grade Neoplasms (2)
  • Name the common Malignant Neoplam (1)

  • Name the Intermediate-Grade Neoplasms (2)
    1. Kaposi Sarcoma
    2. Hemangioendothelioma
  • Name the common Malignant Neoplam (1)
    1. Angiosarcoma

3

  • What does Ectasia mean?
  • What does Telangiectasia mean?
  • Are these true neoplasms?

  • What does Ectasia mean?
    • Ectasia is a generic term for any local dilation of a
      structure. 
  • What does Telangiectasia mean?
    • Term used to describe a permanent dilation
      of preexisting small vessels that forms a
      discrete red lesion. 
  • Are these true neoplasms?
    • No

4

Nevus flammeus

  • What is notable about the incidency of this type of vascular ectasia?
  • How does it manifest?
  • Most of these regress spontaneously. What special kind of Nevus flammeus does not reress?

5

Sturge-Weber Syndrome and Vascular Ectasias

  • What nerve is assocated with this?
  • What are some conditions associated with this?
  • What would a large facial telangiectasia in a child with mental
    deficiencies be a possible indication for?

6

Spider telangiectasias

  • These are non-neoplastic vascular lesions
  • What is notable about their appearance?
  • What areas of the body they usually appear in?
  • What is the condition that they are most commonly associated with?

7

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease)

  • What kind genetics?
    • What is usually mutated?
  • What are the malformations seen in this composed of?
  • Where do these usaully appear?
  • If these lesions rupture, what can happen?

8

Hemangiomas

  • How common are these?
  • Are they malignant?
  • Where are they usually confined to?
  • If they become extensive, thwere to abou 1/3 of hemangiomas manifest?

9

Hemangiomas: Capillary hemangiomas

  • How common are these types of hemangiomas, relative to other tpes of hemangiomas?
  • Where do they occur in the body?
  • What do they look like on a histological level?

10

Juvenile hemangiomas (“strawberry hemangiomas”)

  • What PT population is thi smost common in?
  • How fast do they grow?
    • Do they regress?
  • Where are these most notably seen on the body, and what do they look like?

11

Hemangiomas: Pyogenic granulomas

  • What kind of Hemangioma are these?
  • How fast do they grow?
  • What do they look like?
  • Where do they appear on the body?
    • When do about 25% of them apear?
  • What complications do they cause?
  • How big can they get?
  • What is a a usually curative Tx?

12

Hemangiomas: Cavernous hemangiomas

  • What are they composed of?
  • Compared with capillary hemangiomas:
    • Which is more infiltrative?
    • What type of strucutres are frequently involved?
    • Which regresses spontaneously?

13

Characteristics of Cavernous hemangiomas

  • What two conditions are generally assocaited with this?
    • How are they treated if they become serious?
    • What problems can these 2 conditions lead to?
  • Why are brain hemangiomas problematic? 

14

Hippel-Lindau disease

  • What type of hemangioma is involved with this disease?
  • Where do teh vascular lesions commonly manifest?

15

Simple (capillary) lymphangiomas

  • What is notable about the morphology of these lesions?
    • How big are they?
  • Where do they occur in the body?
  • What are most lymphangiomas composed of?
    • What are they NOT composed of?

16

Cavernous lymphangiomas (cystic hygromas)

  • What population usually has these?
  • Where do they occur in the body?
    • How big can they get?
  • What are they composed of, and what lies in their stroma?
  • Why is resection of them hard?
  • What genetic condition are these common in?

17

Glomus Tumors (Glomangiomas)

  • Are these maligant or benign?
  • What is notable about how these patients present?
  • What endogenous cells do these cells arise from, what homeostatic function are they normally involved in?
  • How do you differentiate between these and cavernous hemangiomas?
  • What happens to the wall of the glomus vessel associated with these?

18

Glomus Tumors (Glomangiomas)

  • What portion of the body is typical involved?
    • What cures patients of these disease?

19

Bacillary Angiomatosis

  • What happens to vascular proligeration in this disease?
  • Who usually gets it?
  • Where do they appear in the body?
  • What kind of bacteria are usually involved? Name the two species that have been implicated?
    • Which one caueses a necortizing granulomatous infllation of lymph nodes?

20

Bacillary Angiomatosis

  • What happens to the skin of PTs who have this?
  • What is seen on a histolgical scale?
  • What do the infectious bacteria cause host tissues to release, and what does this do to vascular proliferation?
  • How do you get rid of these lesions and infections?

21

Intermediate-Grade (Borderline) Tumors: Kaposi Sarcoma

  • What pathogen causes this tumor?
  • What disease is is associated with, and why would this be a possible reason for the area of the world that it is most common in?
  • What are the 4 types of KS, and what charistics are the classifed by?

22

Classic KS

  • Who is this common in?
  • What is it associated with?
  • How does it manifest on the skin?
    • Where does it manifest?
  • Does it kill people?

23

Endemic African Kaposi Sarcoma

  • What age group gets this?
    • What disease do this patients NOT have?
  • What important strucutres does this affect in the body?
  • What can you see on a histological level?

24

Transplant-assocaited KS

  • Is this aggressive or self-limiting?
  • Where in the body does it affect?
    • Why would this not be an obvious disease after a transplat?
  • What is the treatment for this and why is this treatment somewhat counterintutive based the generaly presentation of Kaposi Sarcomas?

25

AIDS Associated KS

  • This is the most common HIV-related malignany? Is it common for AIDS patients do die from it?
  • What has caused an decrease incidence of it?
    • How much more common is KS in AIDS patients than healthy patients?
    • How common is it in HIV-infected Americans?
  • Where in the body does it affect?

26

Kaposi Sarcoma

  • What pathogen is seen at every lesion in this disease?
  • How do people get affected by this disease?
  • What type of immune cell is implicated in disease progression?
  • What does the pathogen responsible for this do to endothelial cells?
  • How do these cells inhibit apoptosis? (HINT: its fu*king cancer)
  • What is charicteristic in the late stage of this disease?

27

Classic KS

  • What stages do skin lesions progroess through?
    • Does this happen in the other forms of KS

28

Classic KS

  • Skin Lesions: Patches
    • What do the patches on the skin of patients look like?
    • What can the inflammorty cell infiltrate in the patches contain?
    • Where do this usually ocur on the body?
      • Over time, what can this patches turn into as the lesions spread to other parts of the body?

29

KS Moprhology

  • What appears in the later stages of the disease?
    • Where do they occur in the body? How is this altered in the AIDS-associted varient?
    • What cell are these made of?
    • What is notable histological feature of this disease? (aka buzz-word)

30

Kaposi Sarcoma: Clinical Features

  •  What pathogen causes this?
    • Are most patients infected withasymptomic or symptomatic?
  • Classic KS
    • What is the best treatment for this variant of KS?
  • KS associated with immunosuppression (non-HIV)
    • What is often the Tx for this type of KS?
  • AIDS-associted KS
    • What type of therapy is most benificial?
    • What cytokine and bodily process can be inhibited to improve prognosis?

31

Hemangioendotheliomas

  • Why can these tumors be considered "in-between'ers" compared to others?
  • In adults, where to most of these tumors occur?
  • Clinical Course
    • What is the curative Tx for this condition? 
    • Do these often metastasize?

32

Angiosarcomas

  • What other tumor do angiosarcomas resemble?
  • What group of people does this have a higher incidence in?
  • Where do lesions most often occur in the body? (4)
  • Are these aggresive cancers?
  • Lymphangiosarcoma
    • Excision of what other type of cancer can cause these? How?

33

Hepatic Angiosarcomas

  • What 2 carcinogens can cause this type of cancer?
    • How long does it take for tumors to develop?
  • What replaces teh parenchyma of the liver?

34

Angiosarcomas

  • Although histolgical presentation may be variable 2 things are often found?
  • What are the two factors that stains target to differentiate the tumor for healthy tissue?

35

Cardiac Tumors

  • Are these usally metastatic or benign?
  • What are the 5 most common types of primary cardiac tumors?
  • What is the most common MALIGNANT cardiac tumor?

36

Myxomas

  • What is notable about the incidence of these tumors?
  • Where do they usaully occur in the heart?
    • Where in that region do they often occur?
  • What can you see on a histological scale?

37

Myxomas

  • What 3 things cause the clinical manifestations of myxomas?
    • What cytokine is associated with one of these 3 things?
  •  

38

Myxomas

  • How are most of these tumors dx'ed?
  • What tx is almost always curative?

39

Rhabdomyomas

  • What population do these most commonly affect?
  • How are they discovered usaully, and what is the most common reason for death?
  • Mutations in what genes are assocaited with these?
  • What do you see on an echocardiogram?

40

Rhabdomyomas

  • What condition/genes are usually associated with these?
    • What does this do to myocytes?
  • What would you consider a rhabdomyomas if it spontaneously regresses?

41

Rhabdomyomas

  • What do this tumors look like, and what part of the heart do they usually protude into?
  • What kind of cells are usually associated with these tumors, and what noitable sturcture can be seen on a histologcal slide?

42

Metastatic Tumors

  • Where do most tumors that metastasize to the heart come from? (5) (L's and M's)
  • What is the mechanism of transport for cancerous cells?

43

Metastatic Tumors

  • Which is more common: Metastatic tumors that spread to the heart or primary cardiac tumors