Pathology (Sections 1-10) Flashcards Preview

PLE 2017: Pathology > Pathology (Sections 1-10) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology (Sections 1-10) Deck (239):
1

Pathophysiology:
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

Xp11.23 Mutation

Depleted systemic T-Cell Population;
Paradoxical increase in IgA, IgE

2

Leading cause of Mental Retardation
Oblique Palpebral Fissures
Epicanthal Folds
Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia
Endocardial Cushion Defect

Down Syndrome

3

"Dewdrops on a Rose Petal" intraepithelial vesicles

VZV

4

Pathophysiology:
Down Syndrome

Trisomy 21
(MC: Non disjunction of Chromosome 21)

5

Pathophysiology:
von Gierke Disease

Glucose-6-Phosphatase Deficiency

6

Pathophysiology:
Pompe Disease

Lysosomal Acid Maltase Deficiency

7

Metabolism characterized by high glucose uptake with marked preference for fermentation.

Seen in cancer cells

Warburg Metabolism

8

Plasma Cells with cytoplasmic granules containing immunoglobulins

Seen in Trypanosomiasis

Mott Cells

9

Pathophysiology:
Hunter Syndrome (MPS II)

L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase Deficiency

X-Linked

10

Eunuchoid Body Habitus
Mitral Valve Prolapse (50%)
Male Hypogonadism
T2DM, MS

Klinefelter Syndrome

11

Gaucher Cells

Distended Phagocytes:
"Crumpled Tissue Paper" Appearance

Gaucher Disease

12

Most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen

Chlamydia trachomatis

13

Histology:
Maltese Cross Pattern,
Parasites without Hemozoin

Babesia

14

MoA: p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene

Central monitor of stress;
Synthesis of p21 arrests cycle at G1-S

15

Libman-Sacks Endocarditis

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

16

Triad of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

1. Thrombocytopenia
2. Immunodeficiency
3. Eczema

17

Etiologic Agent: Stomach CA, Esophageal CA

Nitrosamine

18

Expressivity

Variability of phenotype expression

19

Etiologic Agent: Urothelial Bladder CA

Aniline

20

Commonly involved heart valve in fungal endocarditis

Tricuspid Valve

21

Pathophysiology: Hurler Syndrome (MPS I)

Alpha-L-Iduronidase Deficiency

Autosomal Recessive

22

Etiologic Agent: Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Benzene

23

Necrotizing pneumonia
Target Lesions
Sepate Hyphae at acute angles

Aspergillosis

24

Alternating RBC-rich and -depleted areas within thrombi?

Lines of Zahn

25

Autoantibody of choice for SLE screening?

ANA

26

Pathophysiology: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

Defect in phagolysosome membrane traffic

27

Etiologic Agent: Malignant Mesothelioma

Asbestos

28

Beefy red ulcers with indurated borders

Klebsiella granulomatis

Granuloma inguinale

29

Pathophysiology: Gaucher Disease

Glucerebrosidase Deficiency

30

Routes of Metastasis

Carcinoma: Lymphatic

Sarcoma (+ liver, lung, and kidney): Hematogenous

31

Transforming Virus

Paracortical Hyperplasia at LN

Heterophile (+)

EBV

32

Macro-orchidism (90%)
Second leading cause of Mental Retardation
Large Mandible
Everted Ears

Fragile X Syndrome

33

Pathogen: Bladder SCCA

Schistosoma haematobium

34

Migratory Thrombophlebitis

Trosseau Syndrome

34

Pathophysiology: Lemierre Syndrome

Fusobacterium necrophorum infection of the lateral pharyngeal space with septic jugular vein thrombosis

36

Pathophysiology: Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

Gp IIb/IIIa Deficiency

36

Pathophysiology: Patau Syndrome

Trisomy 13

36

Leishmaniasis (Old World)

Visceral:
L. donovani
L. infantum

Cutaneous:
L. major
L. tropica

37

Oncogenes that promote VEGF production

Ras, Myc, Mapk

39

PTEN Mutation

Breast CA, Endometrial CA

40

Central coagulation necrosis surrounded by palisading macrophages and fibroblasts with abundant plasma cells in infiltrate.

Seen in Tertiary Syphilis

Gumma

41

Hamartoma

Disorganized histology, normal location

42

N-formylmethionine

Bacterial Product

43

Bony changes in Congenital Syphilis

Saber Shins (excessive bone growth)
Saddle Nose (destruction of Vomer)
Hutchinson Teeth (peg-shaped)
Osteochondritis
Periostitis

44

Pathophysiology: Hyper IgM Syndrome

Absent CD40L; Class switching not possible for B-Cells

45

Pathophysiology: Tay-Sachs Disease

Defective alpha-subunit of Hexosaminidase A;

Accumulation of GM2 Ganglioside

46

Pathophysiology: Turner Syndrome

Complete or Partial X-Chromosome Monosomy (MC: 45 XO, 57%)

47

Meyer-Kouwenaar Bodies

Dead worms surrounded by hyaline embeded in epithiloid granulomas

(Filariasis)

48

Lipofuschin

"Wear and Tear" Pigment
Sign of Free Radical Injury

49

Pathophysiology: Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

Gp Ib Deficiency

49

Pathophysiology: Ehler-Danlos Syndrome

Heterogenous group of disorders involving fibrillar collagen synthesis

(Autosomal Dominant)

51

Pathophysiology: Hereditary Angioedema

Decreased Response to C1 Inhibitor

52

Pathophysiology: Cori Disease

Debranching Enzyme Deficiency

53

Homogentistic Acid

Ochronosis
Seen in Alkaptonuria

53

Mental Retardation
Ataxic Gait
Seizures
"Happy Puppet"

Angelman Syndrome

54

Pathophysiology: Caisson Disease

Chronic Air Emboli in Skeletal Tissue

55

Pathophysiology: Anderson Disease

Branching Enzyme Deficiency

56

Parotid Involvement,
Testicular Swelling,
Pancreatic Fat Necrosis,
CNS Demyelination

Mumps

57

Leading cause of preventable blindness in Sub-Saharan Africa

Leopard/Lizard/Elephant Skin
Anterior Chamber: Iridocyclitis, Glaucoma
Atrophy of Choroid and Retina

Onchocerca volvulus

58

Etiologic Agent: Prostatic CA

Cadmium

59

Most common lysosomal storage disorder?

Gaucher Disease

60

Hyperkalemia
Hyperphosphatemia
Hyperuricemia
Hypocalcemia

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

61

Pathophysiology: Niemann-Pick Type A & B

Sphingomyelinase Deficiency;

Accumulation of Sphingomyelin

61

Pale, airless lungs in stillborn infants

Pneumonia Alba

62

Pathophysiology: Hers Disease

Hepatic Glycogen Phosphorylase Deficiency

63

Pathophysiology: Familial Hypercholesterolemia

LDL Receptor Mutation

64

Autosomal recessive types of Ehler-Danlos?

Kyphoscoliosis (VI),
Dermatosparaxis (VIIC)

65

Pathophysiology: Combined Variable Deficiency

Unknown

66

Sirtuin

Promotes longevity.
Increased activity during fasting state.

67

Pathophysiology: Huntington Disease

CAG Expansion
HTT Gene
Ch4p16.3

68

Penetrance

Proportion of a given genotype to express a certain phenotype

68

Nurse Cells

Infected skeletal muscle cells with loss of striations (Trichinosis)

70

Pathophysiology: Marfan Syndrome

Fibrillin-1 Defect

(Autosomal Dominant)

71

Pathophysiology: DiGeorge Syndrome (Velocardiofacial Syndrome)

Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion

72

Pathophysiology: Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

Decreased Decay Accelerating Factor (DAF), and CD59

73

Cytoplasmic Inclusions:
Whorled or "Onion-skin" Configuration

Cherry Red Spot (Retina)

Tay-Sachs Disease

74

PTCH1 Mutation

Gorlin Syndrome

75

Mental Retardation
Hypotonia
Hyperohagia
Obesity
Hypogonadism
Small Hands and Feet

Prader-Willi Syndrome

76

Hepatosplenomegaly
Cherry Red Spot (Macula)
Zebra Bodies

Niemann-Pick Disease (Type A & B)

77

Pathophysiology: Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Defective Oxidative Burst

78

Myositis Ossificans

Ectopic Bone in Muscle
(Metaplasia)

79

Mikulicz Syndrome

ANY inflammation and enlargement of the lacrimal or salivary glands

80

Pathophysiology: Edward Syndrome

Trisomy 18

81

Pathophysiology: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Loss in cytokine receptor function; impaired early developmnt of T-Cells (X-Linked)

ADA Deficiency; impaired DNA synthesis via deoxyadenosine accumulation (Autosomal Recessive)

81

Most common form of EPTB

Scrofula

82

Features of DiGeorge Syndrome?

CATCH 22:

Cardiac Anomalies
Abnormal Facies
Thymic Hypoplasia
Cleft Palate
Hypocalcemia

84

Pathophysiology: Klinefelter Syndrome

At least two X-Chromosomes and at least one Y-Chromosome (MC: XXY, 90%)

86

LC3

Marker for Autophagy

88

Pathophysiology: Prader-Willi Syndrome

Deletion of Paternal Ch15q11.2q13

89

Relentlessly progressive dementia and movement disorders from degeneration of Striatal Neurons

Huntington Syndrome

89

Difference between Ghon Focus and Ghon Complex?

Pulmonary Hilar LN Involvement

90

Pathophysiology: Angelman Syndrome

Deletion of Maternal Ch15q12

92

Pathophysiology: Isolated IgA Deficiency

Unknown; may be familial or acquired

93

Russell Bodies

Intracytoplasmic vacuoles seen in activated Plasma Cells

94

Pathogen: Chagas Disease

Trypanosoma cruzi

95

Triad of Sjogren Syndrome

1. Dry Eyes (Keratoconjunctivitis sicca)
2. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)
3. Rheumatoid Arthritis

97

Ovarian Streak,
SHOX Haploinsufficiency,
Webbed Neck,
Preductal Coarctation, Bicuspid AV

Turner Syndrome

98

Autoantibodies involved in Scleroderma?

Anti-DNA Topoisomerase I (Diffuse)
Anti-Centromere (Limited)
Anti-RNA Pol III (Renal Crisis)

99

Pathophysiology: Ataxia-Telangiectasia

ATM Gene Mutation

Decreased IgA and IgG; thymic hypoplasia

100

Durck Granulomas

Perivascular ring hemorrhages in CNS
(Malaria)

101

Yeast with prominent polysaccharide
PAS (+), Mucicarmine (+)
Soap-bubble lesions in CNS

Cryptococcus neoformans

102

Most frequent autoantibodies involved in Sjogren Syndrome?

Anti-Ro (SS-A) and Anti-La (SS-B)

103

Cestodes
Cystercerci
Ovoid, white to opalescent, grape-sized with invaginated scolex

Taenia solium

104

Subpleural consolidation at either the inferior upper lobe or superior lower lobe of the lung.

Ghon Focus

105

Pathophysiology: Factor V Leiden

Decreased response to Protein C

106

Lardaceous/Tapioca Spleen

Amyloidosis

107

Triad of Scleroderma

1. Autoimmunity
2. Vascular Damage
3. Collagen Deposition

108

Fleur-de-lis pattern of necrotizing pneumonia (pale necrotic centers with hemorrhagic periphery)

Perivascular Blue Haze (coagulative vascular necrosis)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

109

Choristoma

Normal histology, ectopic location

110

Most Common Malignant Causes of Mortality

1. Lung CA
2. Breast CA or Prostate CA
3. Colorectal CA

111

Pathophysiology: McArdle Disease

Muscle Glycogen Phosphorylase Deficiency

112

Most common cause of death in childhood Malaria

CNS Involvement

113

Synovitis of the fingers
Raynaud Phenomenon
Mild Myositis

Autoantibody: Anti-RNP

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

114

Leishmaniasis (New World)

Visceral:
L. chagasi

Cutaneous:
L. mexicana
L. brazilensis

115

Apical pulmonary consolidations in Secondary PTB

Simmon Focus

116

Psammoma Bodies

Dystrophic Calcifications

117

Pathophysiology: Fragile X Syndrome

CGG Expansion
FMR 1 Gene
Chromosome 10

118

Hepatosplenomegaly
Pancytopenia
Hyperpigmentation
Weight Loss

Kala-azar

Visceral Leishmaniasis

119

Necrosis, infiltrates, and neovascularization found near the opening of the Stensen Duct in Measles

Koplik Spots

120

Non-septate hyphae at right angles

Mucormycosis

121

Most common cause of death in Scleroderma?

PAH and Interstitial Lung Disease

122

Autoantibody involved in Drug-induced Lupus?

Anti-histone Antibody

123

Pathophysiology: Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia

Type I HSR to microfilariae (Filariasis)

124

20:4(w-6)

Arachidonic Acid

125

Cestodes
Hydatid Cyst
Degenerating scolices (Hydatid Sand)
Anaphylactic Reactions

Echinococcus granulosus

126

CREST Syndrome

Calcinosis
Raynaud Phenomenon (MC extracutaneous manifestation)
Esophageal Dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasia

Otherwise known as Limited Scleroderma/lcSSc

127

Most common site of EPTB along GI Tract

Ileum

128

Pathogen: Granulomatosis Infantiseptica

Listeria monocytogenes

129

Most common cause of fungal endocarditis

Yeast that produces a gray-white, dirty-looking pseudomembrane

Candida albicans

130

Pathophysiology: Bruton X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia

Btk Gene Defect

Arrest in B-Cell development

131

Autoantibody that correlates disease activity in SLE?

Anti-dsDNA

132

True or False?
Grading has greater clinical value than Staging.

False

133

Lepra Cells

Lipid-laden macrophages (Lepromatous Leprosy), with globi

134

Symbiotic bacteria required for nematode development and reproduction

Wolbachia

135

Hallmark of Malignancy

Anaplasia

136

Donvan Bodies

Gram negative coccobacilli in macrophages (Klebsiella granulomatis)

137

Etiologic Agent: Hepatic Angiosarcoma

Vinyl Chloride, Arsenic

138

Most common proto-oncogene abnormality in human tumors

RAS

139

Mononuclear Giant Cells with eosinophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions

Warthin-Finkeldey Cells (Measles)

140

MoA: Rb Tumor Suppressor Gene

Phosphorylated: Promote replication

Dephosphorylated: Arrest at G1-S

141

Painful genital lesions with non-indurated borders and yellow-gray exudates

Haemophilus ducreyi

Chancroid

142

Onset of TH1 response in Tuberculosis

2-4 weeks post-infection

143

Intranuclear basopihilic inclusions surrounded by a clear halo (Owl's Eye)

Heterophile (-)

CMV

144

Pathogen: Cholangiocarcinoma

Clonorchis sinensis,
Opistorchis viverrni

145

Multinucleated syncitia with inclusions

Pink to purple intranuclear inclusions (Cowdry Type A)

HSV

146

Tumor factor that promotes VEGF production

Hypoxia Inducible Factor - 1 Alpha (HIF-1a)

147

Most common mechanism of evading apoptosis

Disruption of intrinsic apoptotic pathway

148

Biochemical basis of Cancer Cachexia

TNF-Alpha

149

Desmoplasia

Formation of abundant collagenous stroma

150

Pathophysiology: Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

TP53 mutation leading to increased risk of malignancy

151

Most Common Cancers in Children

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
2. CNS Tumors
3. Burkitt Lymphoma

152

Effect of Carbon Monoxide on ETC

Cytochrome C Oxidase (Complex 4) Inhibitor

153

Coma and death in Carbon Monoxide poisoning

60-70% Saturation

154

Ring sideroblasts
Hypochromic, microcytic anemia
Punctate basophilic stippling of RBC's
Saturnine Gout

Lead Toxicity

155

Lead toxicity in children

Central neurologic symptoms due to high intestinal absorption

156

Cerebral Palay
Blindness
Mental Retardation

Methylmercury exposure in utero

Minamata Disease

157

Increases CNS toxicity of Mercury

Increased lipophilicity (metallic or organic forms)

158

Pathophysiology: Itai-itai Disease

Osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and renal disease in Cadmium toxicity

159

Measure of passive smoking

Cotinine

160

Most commonly abused substance

Alcohol

161

Microcephaly
Growth Retardation
Facial abnormalities
Reduced mental function

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

162

Most common thermal injury

Thermal Burns

163

Hyperthermia
Generalized Vasodilation
Hyperkalemia
Arrhythmia
Rhabdomyolisis

Heat Stroke

164

Flag Sign (Hair)
"Flaky Paint" Skin
CNS Involvement
Intact SC Fat

Kwashiorkor Syndrome

165

Small opaque placques of keratin debris (Bitot Spots)
Nyctalopia

Vitamin A Deficiency

166

Nutritional imbalance causing Pseudotumor cerebri

Vitamin A Excess

167

Craniotabes
Frontal Bossing
Pectum Carinatum
Rachitic Rosary (Cartilagenous overgrowth at costochondral junction)

Rickets

168

Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing the followng malignancies:

Colon, Prostate, and Breast

169

Essential enzyme in Vitamin C synthesis

L-gulonolactone oxidase

170

Dementia
Dermatitis
Diarrhea

Pellagra

171

Pathophysiology: Keshan Disease

Cardiomyopathy associated with selenium deficiency and Coxsackie Virus infection

172

Anorexigenic Compounds
(Inreased POMC/CART activity)

Leptin
PYY
Amylin

173

Orexigenic Compounds

NPY
AgRP
Ghrelin

174

Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Polycythemia
Cor Pulmonale

Pickwickian Syndrome
(Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome)

175

Pathologically related congenital anomalies caused by MULTIPLE initiating defects

Malformation Syndrome

176

Primary error of morphogenesis

Malformation

177

Secondary DESTRUCTION of a normally developed organ

Disruption

178

Secondary DEFORMATION of a normally developed organ

Deformation

179

Constellation of anomalies caused by a SINGLE initiating abberation

Sequence

180

Potter Sequence

Oligohydramnios

181

Drug that interferes with HOX Gene expression

Valproic Acid

182

In maternal diabetes, inhibits development of Type II pneumocytes

Insulin

183

Pathophysiology: Retinopathy of Prematurity

Hyperoxia causes vasoconstriction; subsequent hypoxia increases VEGF synthesis

184

Striking distance in alveolar septation;

Impairment of lung development at saccular stage

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

185

Pneumatosis intestinalis
Loss of GIT mucosal integrity
Mediated by PAF

Necrotizing enterocolitis

186

Anasarca
Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Extramedullary hematopoiesis

Hydrops Fetalis

187

Pathophysiology: Cystic Fibrosis

CFTR Gene Mutation, Ch7q31.2

Failure of Chloride influx (Sweat Glands, Pancreas) or efflux (GI and Pulmonary Epithelium)

188

Sine qua non (Salty sweat)
Meconium ileus
Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens

Sweat glands morphologically unremarkable

Cystic Fibrosis

189

Triple Risk Model
(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)

1. Vulnerable Infant
2. Critical developmental period in homeostatic control
3. Exogenous Stressor

190

Only safe sleeping position

Supine

191

Most common tumor of infancy

Hemangioma

192

Most common teratoma of childhood

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma

193

Most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood

Neuroblastoma

194

Most commonly diagnosed tumor of infancy

Neuroblastoma

195

Homer-Wright Pseudorosettes

Neuroblastoma

Tumor cells surrounding a neutrophil-rich central space

196

Indicators of improved prognosis in Neuroblastoma

Age (< 18 months)
Stage (1, 2A, 2B, 4S)

197

Maturation of Neuroblastoma

Ganglioneuroblastoma
Ganglioneuroma (with Schwannian Stroma)

198

Most common renal tumor of childhood

Wilms Tumor

199

Pathophysiology: WAGR Syndrome

WT1 Gene

Wilms Tumor
Aniridia
Genital Anomalies
Mental Retardation

200

Pahophysiology: Denys-Drash Syndrome

WT1 Gene

Wilms Tumor
Nephropaty
Gonadoblastoma

201

Pathophysiology: Beckwidth-Weidemann Syndrome

WT2 Gene

Organomegaly
Macroglossia
Omphalocoele
Hemihypertrophy
Adrenal Cytomegaly

202

Triphasic Tumor (Wilms)

1. Blastema
2. Stromal
3. Epithelial

203

Key initiating event in essential hypertension

Reduced renal sodium excrtion

204

Pathophysiology: Liddle Syndrome

Gain-of-function mutation of ENaC channels in cortical collectng ducts

205

Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis

"Onion-skin" Lesions
Smooth muscle cells with reduplicated BM
Necrotizing Arteriolitis

Seen in Malignant Hypertension

206

Vascular pathology in Essential Hypertension

Hyaline Arteriosclerosis

207

Calcifications of internal elastic membrane of muscular arteries without luminal narrowing

Monckeberg Medical Calcific Sclerosis

208

Morphology: Fatty Streak

Lipid-laden Macrophages

209

Morphology: Atheromatous Plaque

Fibrous Cap and Lipid Core

210

Level of occlusion at which tissue ischemia starts

Critical Stenosis

211

High-intensity Statin Benefit Groups

1. Clinical ASCVD

2. LDL >190 mg/dL

3. T2DM PLUS
40-75 years, LDL 70-189 mg/dL, (-)ASCVD

4. 10 year risk > 7.5% PLUS
40-75 years, LDL 70-189 mg/dL, (-)ASCVD

212

Hallmark of vascular wall weakening

Cystic Medial Degeneration

213

Indication for aggressive management of AAA

> 5 cm

214

True or False?

AD classified as Stanford A are more lethal than those classified as Stanford B.

True.

215

Pain along course of Superior Temporal Artery
Headache
Type 4 HSR

Most common vasculitis among older individuals

Giant Cell Arteritis

216

Occular disturbances
"Pulseless Disease"
Involves branches of the Aorta

Type 4 HSR

Takayasu Arteritis

217

Visceral Ischemia
Hypertension
No pulmonary involvement

Prominent fibroid necrosis of medium-sized vessels with temporal heterogeniety

Type 3 HSR, associated wth HBV infection

Polyarteritis Nodosa

218

Fever
Conjunctival Injection
Polymorphous exanthem

Less prominent fibrinoid necrosis of medium-sized vessels, with temporal heterogeniety

Type 3 HSr
Important cause of MI in children

Kawasaki Disease

219

Hemoptysis
Hematuria
Proteinuria

Temporally homogenous fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels; (+) Leukocytoclasia

P-ANCA

Microscopic Polyangitis

220

Palpable purpura
GI Bleed
FSGS

Necrotizing granulomas and eosinophils with fibrinoid necrosis of small vessels

p-ANCA
Associated with IgE mediated conditions

Churg-Strauss Syndrome

221

Persistent pneumonitis with bilateral nodular and cavitary infiltrates
Chronic Sinusitis
Nasopharyngeal Ulcers
Renal Disease

Prominent pulmonary involvement

c-ANCA
Crescentic GN

Granulomatosis with Angiitis
(Wegener Granulomatosis)

222

Oral aphtuous ulcers
Genital ulcers
Uveitis

Neutrophilic infiltration of small- and medium-sized vessels

Behcet Syndrome

223

Raynaud Phenomenon
Intermittent and Instep Claudication
Superficial nodular thrombophlebitis

Thrombosis with microabscesses in small- to medium-sized vssels in the extremities

Smokers

Thromboangitis Obliterans
(Buerger Disease)

224

Cardiac Raynaud

Coronary vessel vasospasm

225

Pathophysiology: Trosseau Syndrome

Migratory surface thrombophlebitis in cancer patients

226

Pathophysiology: Milroy Disease

Familial primary lymphedema

227

Most common cause of lymphangitis

Streptococcus pyogenes

228

Dilated cutaneous blood vessels that regress spontaneously

Most common form of vascular ecthasia

Nevus Flammeus
(Birthmark)

229

Nevus Flammeus distributed along course of Trigeminal Nerve

Port-wine Stain

230

Port-wine Nevi
Mental Retardation
Seizures
Hemiplegia
Ipsilateral venous angiomas in cortical leptomeninges


Sturge-Weber Syndrome

231

Blanching, radial, pulsatile subcutaneous arteries about a central core

Spider Telangiectasia

232

Pathophysiology: Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome (Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia)

TGF-Beta Abnormality

233

Cavernous hemangiomas involvng the ceebellum, brainstem, retina, pamcreas, and liver

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

234

Juvenile-type hemangioma
Spontaneously regresses by age 7

Strawberry Hemangioma

235

Red, pedunculated lesions on the skin, gingiva, and oral mucosa in pregnancy

Granuloma Gravidarum
(Type of Capillary Hemangioma)

236

Painful tumors arising from modified smooth muscle cells

Commonly found in the distal digits

Glomus Tumor

237

Vascular proliferation secondary to Bartonella infection

Bacillary Angiomatosis

238

Vascular neoplasm secondary to HHV-8 infection

AIDS-defining lesion (Epidemic Type)

Kaposi Sarcoma

239

Immunostains used for Angiosarcomas

CD31
vWF