Pathology (Sections 11-15) Flashcards Preview

PLE 2017: Pathology > Pathology (Sections 11-15) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology (Sections 11-15) Deck (251):
1

Pattern of sarcomere formation associated with COVERLOAD?

Parallel

2

Pattern of sarcomere formation associated with VOLUME OVERLOAD?

Series

3

Heart Failure Cells

Hemosiderin-laden Macrophages

4

Nutmeg Liver

Centrilobular congestion and ischemia

5

Most common genetic cause of congenital heart defects

Trisomy 21

6

Marker of irreversibility in Congestive Heart Disease

Pulmonary Hypertension

7

Most common type of ASD

Secundum (90%)

8

Timetable for PFO Closure

Closed in 80% of individuals by 2 years

9

Most common Congenital Heart Disease

VSD

10

Most common type of VSD?

Perimembranous (90%)

11

Size of defect in non-restrictive VSD

> 10mm

12

Factors involved in PDA closure

Increased:
Oxygen Tension

Decreased:
Pulmonary Vascular Resistance
Prostaglandin E2

13

Components of ductus arteriosus in preterm infants that are ABSENT in term infants?

Mucoid Epithelium
Muscular Media

14

Most common cyanotic CHD

Tetralogy of Fallot

15

Primary defect in ToF

Anterosuperior displacement of infundibular septum

16

Mild pulmonary stenosis in ToF; clinically resembles isolated VSD

Pink ToF

17

Ventriculoarterial Discordance

CXR: Egg-on-the-side, Apple-on-a-stem

TGA

18

Absence of direct communication between RA and RV

Tricuspid Atresia

19

Coarctation found proximal to the PDA
Lower extremity cyanosis
RVH/Biventricular

Infantile Type

20

Coarctation distal to the arch vessels
Upper extremity HPN
Ribnotching
Increased blood flow to intercostal vessels
LVH

Adult Type

21

Vessels most commonly involved in MI

Left Anterior Descending (40-50%)
Right Coronary (30-40%)
Left Circumflex (15-20%)

22

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Pale zone seen with triphenyltetrazolium chloride

2 to 3 hours

23

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Conversion to a pale, soft, tan infarct

12 to 24 hours

24

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Conversion to a fibrous scar

10 days to 2 weeks

25

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Microscopically apparent coagulative necrosis

6 to 12 hours

26

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Acute inflammation; neutrophilic predominance

1 to 3 days

27

Myocardial Infarction Progression:

Macrophagocytic predominance

3 to 7 days

28

Most sensitive and specific cardiac biomarkers for MI

Troponin T, Tropinin I

29

Biomarker used to assess possible rinfarction

CK-MB
(returns to normal levels within 2 to 3 days)

30

Pathophysiology: Dressler Syndrome

Fibrinous pericarditis in a post-MI setting

Also known as:
Postmyocardial infarct syndrome

31

Most common CAUSE of Sudden Cardiac Death

Coronary Artery Disease (80%)

32

Most common MECHANISM of Sudden Cardiac Death

Lethal Arrhythmia

33

Most common cause of arrhythmias

Ischemic injury

34

Earliest histologic change in hypertensive heart disease

Increased transverse diameter of cardiac myocytes

35

Most common valvular heart disease

Calcific Aortic Stenosis

36

Aschoff Bodies

Foci of T-Cells, Plasma Cells, and Anitschkow Cells

Pathognomonic of Rheumatic Fever

37

Anitschkow Cells

Enlarged macrophages found in Aschoff Bodies

Also called Caterpillar Cells

38

Fequency of involvement of valves in RF

Decreasing frequency:

Mitral
Aortic
Tricuspid
Pulmonic

39

MacCallum Plaques

Irregular subendocardial thickenings seen in regurgitant processes

40

Small cardiac vegetations seen along lines of closure, overlying fibrinoid necrosis

Verrucae

41

Deformity seen in calcification and fibrous bridging of valvular commisures

Fish Mouth / Button Hole

42

Major manifestations of RF

Mnemonic: J<3NES

Joints (Arthritis)
Heart (Carditis)
Nodules (Subcutaneous)
Erythema Marginatum
Sydenham Chorea

43

Hallmark of infective endocarditis

Vegetations

44

Most commonly affected valves in infective endocarditis

In general: Left-sided (Mitral, Aortic)

IV Drug Users: Right-sided (Pulmonic, Tricuspid)

45

Small-medium sized vegetations on BOTH sides of the valve leaflet

Libman-Sacks Endocarditis

46

Small, BLAND vegetations attached to the lines of closure

Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis

Previously known as Marantic Endocarditis

47

Flushing
Diarrhea
Dermatitis
Bronchoconstriction

Carcinoid Syndrome

48

Glistening white, intimal, plaque-like thickenings in endocardium

Usually affects right side of the heart

Associated with massive hepatic metastases

Carcinoid Heart Disease

49

Cardiomyopathy with systolic dysfunction
(EF < 40%)

Titin defect (in 20% of cases)





Dilated Cardiomyopathy

50

Massive, assymetric myocyte hypertrophy with myofiber disarray and interstitial fibrosis

Associated with defective Beta Myosin Heavy Chain

Diastolic dysfunction; EF may be preserved

Hypertrophc Cardiomyopathy

51

Cardiomyopathy secondary to excess catecholamines from psychologic stress

Tako-tsubo Cardiomyopathy

52

Pathophysiology: Arrhythmogenic RV Cardiomyopathy

Defective desmosomes

Severely thinned RV myocardium with fatty infiltrates and fibrosis

53

Pathophysiology: Naxos Syndrome

Plakoglobin Mutation

SSx of ARVC + Hyperkeratosis of plantar and palmar skin surfaces

54

Most common infectious cause of myocarditis

Viral (Coxsackie A and B, Enterovorus)

55

Atrial involvement (LA > RA)
Ball-valve Obstruction
Solitary, sessile/pedunculated mass mottled with hemorrhage

Most comkon primary cardiac tumor in adults

Myxoma

56

Ventricular involvement
Multiple gray-white masses
Spider cells

Most common primary cardiac tumor in children

Rhabdomyoma

57

Beck Triad

1. Increased JVP
2. Arterial hypotension
3. Muffled Heart Sounds

58

Systolic retraction of the rib cage and diaphragm and pulsus paradoxus in the setting of CHRONIC pericarditis

Adhesive mediastinopericarditis

59

Single most important long-term limitation of cardiac transplantation

Allograft arteriopathy
(Diffuse intimal proliferation of coronary arteries leading to ischemia)

60

Clinically significant neutropenia (< 500/mm^3)

Most common cause: Drug Toxicity

Agranulocytosis

61

Lymphadenitis histologically composed of:

1. Light zone of Centrocytes
2. Dark zone of Centroblasts
3. Tingible Body Macrophages

Follicular Hyperplasia (B-Cell)

62

Lymphadenitis histologically composed of:

1. Immunoblasts
2. Hypertrophic sinusoidal and vascular endothelial cells

Parafollicular Hyperplasia (T-Cells)

63

Lymphadenitis histologically composed of an increased number of macrophages and cells lining lymphatic sinusoids

Sinus Histiocytosis / Reticular Hyperplasia

64

Congenital form of Neutropenia

Korstmann Syndrome

65

Most common cancer in children

Acute Lymphocytic blastic Leukemia

66

Most common leukemia of adults in the western world

Chonic Lymphocytic Leukemia,
Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

67

Most commonly n ndolent lymphoma in adults

Follicular Lymphoma

68

Most common lymphoma of adults

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

69

Most common form of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

70

Early childhood
Presents as BM Failure
Hypercellular marrow with lymphoblasts
Immunostain: TdT (95%)
Metastases: Meninges, Testes (sanctuary site)

B-Cell Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

71

Adolescent males
Presents as thymic masses
NOTCH-1 Mutation (70%)
Hypercellular marrow with lymphoblasts
Immunostain: TdT (95%)
Metastases: Meningeal, Testes (sanctuary site)

T-Cell Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

72

Poor prognostic factors in ALL

1. Age less than 2 and greater than 10 years
2. WBC > 100,000

73

Favorable prognostic factors in ALL

1. Age 2-10
2. WBC < 100,000
3. Hyperdiploidy
4. Trisomy 4, 7, and 10
5. T(12;21) mutation

74

60 years, M > F
Hypogammaglobulinemia
PBS: Small lymphocytes, Smudge Cells
Peripheral lymphocytosis: > 5,000/mm^3

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

75

Difference between Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (SLL)

Peripheral Blood Lymphocytosis

CLL: > 5,000 / mm^3
SLL: < 5,000 / mm^3

76

Pathophysiology: Richter Syndrome

Transformation of CLL into more aggressive lymphomas, usually Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

77

Middle Age
Painless, generalized lymphadenopathy
BCL2/t(14;18) Mutation in 90%
BMA: Paratrabecular Lymphoid Aggregates (85%)

Histologically similar to B-Cell Hyperplasia WITHOUT Tingible Body Macrophages

Incurable

Follicular Lymphoma

78

60 years, M > F
Rapidly enlarging nodal or extranodal mass
BCL6, BCL2 Mutation (10-20%)
Aggressive, rapidly fatal

Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

79

Immunostians used in DLBCL

1. CD45 (lymphoid)
2. CK (Epithelial)
3. Vimentin (mesenchymal)

80

Mandibular mass
Latent EBV Infection in ALL cases
MYC t(8:14) Mutation
"Starry Sky" Pattern
Aggressive but treatable

Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma

81

Ileocecal or peritoneal mass
Latent EBV Infection in 10-20%
MYC t(8:14) Mutation
"Starry Sky" Pattern
Aggressive but treatable

Sporadic Burkitt Lymphoma

82

"Punched-out" bony lesions
Pain, Hypercalcemia, Recurrent Infections
Cyclin overexpression
Histology: Russel Bodies, Dutcher Bodies
Bence-Jones Proteinuria (Ig light-chain)
M Proteins (monoclonal antibodies)

Multiple Myeloma

83

Indicator of poor prognosis in Multiple Myeloma

Elevated IL-6

84

"Solitary MM"
Most progress to multiple myeloma within 7-10 years

Solitary Plasmacytoma

85

Same presentation as CLL/SLL
Plasma Cell Differentiation
Hyperviscosity Syndrome
No bone manifestations

Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma
(Waldenstrom Macroglobulnemia)

86

Features: Hyperviscosity Syndrome

1. Visual Changes
2. Neurologic Deficits
3. Bleeding
4. Cryoglobulinemia

87

Painless lymphadenopathy
Naive B-Cell origin
No prolymphocytes, centroblasts
Poor prognosis

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

88

Seen in tissues with CHRONIC inflammation
Memory B-Cell origin
Regresses when inciting agent is removed

Marginal Zone Lymphoma

89

Splenomegaly
B-Cell Origin
Associated with atypical mycobacteria
"Dry Tap"
Excellent prognosis

Hairy Cell Leukemia

90

T-Cell Origin
Hallmark: Large anaplastc cells with horseshoe-shaped nuclei
(+) CD30, ALK

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

91

CD4+ T-Cell Origin
Cloverleaf Cells (multilobulated nuclei)
HTLV-1 (retrovirus) infection
Poor prognosis

Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

92

CD4+ Helper T-Cell Origin in skin
Pautrier Microabscesses
Sezary Syndrome

Mycosis Fungoides

Also known as Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

93

Pautrier Microabscess

Infiltration of epidermis and upper dermis by Sezary Cells

Seen in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

94

Pathophysiology: Sezary Syndrome

Generalized exfoliative erythroderma with leukemia of Sezary Cells

95

T-Cells with cerebriform nuclei

Seen in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Sezary Cells

96

Reed-Sternberg Cells

"Owl-eye Nuclei"
Diagnostic of Hodgkin Lymphoma

97

Lymphoma more often localized to single axial group of nodes
Contiguous Spread
Rare extranodal presentation

Hodgkin Lymphoma

98

Sexual predisposition of HL

M > F
(except Nodular Sclerosis-type; M=F)

99

Hodgkin Lymphoma most commonly associated with HIV

Lymphocyte Depleted HL

100

FAB M3 Mutation
Faggot Cells
Associated with DIC
Treatable: ATRA

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

101

Cells with multiple needle-like azurophilic granules (Auer Rods)

Seen in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Faggot Cells

102

Defective hematopoietic maturation
Bone Marrow Failure
Poor prognosis

Ringed Sideroblasts (erythroid)
Pseudo-Pelget-Huet Cells (granulocytic)
Pawn Ball (megakaryocytic)

Myelodysplastic Syndrome

103

Erythroblasts with Prussian Blue (+) iron-laden mitochondria

Seen in MDS

Ringed Sideroblasts

104

PMN's with only 2 lobes

Seen in MDS

Pseudo-Pelget-Huet Cells

105

Megakaryocytes with single, multilobulated nuclei OR multiple, separated nuclei

Seen in MDS

Pawn Ball Megakaryocyte

106

BCR-ABL t(9;22)

Philadelphia Chromosome

Seen in CHronic Myelogenous Leukemia

107

Preferential proliferation of granulocytic and magakaryocytic lines
Philadelphia Chromoosome
Hypercellular marrow with sea-blue histiocytes

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

108

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
10-19% Myeloblasts
Increasing splenomegaly

Accelerated Phase

109

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
>20% Myeloblasts
Large cluster of blasts in BMA
Chloroma (focus of leukemia outside BM)

Blast Crisis

110

Plethoric
Erythromelalgia
JAK2 Mutation in most cases
Increase in all cell lines, esp. erythroid

Polycythemia Vera

111

Increase in megakaryocyte cell line
Erythromelalgia
Giant platelets in peripheral blood
JAK2 Mutation in HALF of cases

Essential Thrombocytosis

112

Extensive, non-neoplastic deposition of collagen in BM
Hepatosplenomegaly
Decreased Erythroid line
Leukoerythroblastosis
Dacryocytes

Primary Myelofibrosis

113

Tear-drop Cell
Abnormally-shaped poikilocyte

Seen in Myelofibrosis

Dacryocyte

114

Proliferative disorder of Dendritic Cells
Birbeck Granules

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

115

Racket-shaped cytoplasmic organelles found exclusively in Langerhans Cells

Contain Langerin Proteins

Birbeck Granules

116

Most common Thymic Malignancy

SCCA

117

Intrinsic type of hemolysis with INTRAVASCULAR hemolysis

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
(Intrinsic)

G6PD
(Mixed)

118

Autosomal Dominant
Spherical cells without central pallor
Elevated MCHC

Diagnostic: Osmotic Fragility Test

Hereditary Spherocytosis

119

X-Linked Recessive
Reduced NAPH for glutathione reduction
Heinz Bodies in asplenic patients
Bite Cells
Protective against Malaria

Diagnostic: NBS

Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

120

Autosomal Recessive
Mutation in 6th codon of Beta-Globulin gene (Glu to Val)
Target Cells (Codocytes)
Howell-Jolly Bodies (in asplenic patients)
Protective against Malaria

Diagnostic: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis

Sickle Ccell Anemia

121

Heinz Body

Intracellular inclusion in RBCs composed of denatured hemoglobin

Seen in G6PD Deficiency

122

Howell-Jolly Bodies

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Seen in Sickle Cell Anemia

123

Major hemoglobins of Beta-Thalassemia

Major:
HbF (a2y2)

Minor:
HbA2 (a2d2)

124

Major hemoglobins of Alpha-Thalassemia

Newborns:
Barts (y4)

Older:
HbH (b4)

125

PIGA Mutation
Decreased DAF (CD55), CD59, C8 Binding Protein
MAC-mediated intravascular hemolysis
Mechanism enhanced by acidic nocturnal blood pH

Diagnostic: Flow Cytometry

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

126

Hemolysis characterized by partial phagocytosis and conversion of RBCs to spherocytes

Warm Hemolysis

127

Cold Hemolysis

Hemolysis characterized by opsonization via C3b

128

Common function of Folic Acid and Cobalamin

Conversion of homocysteine to methionine during tetrahydrofolate regeneration

129

MoA: decreased transferrin in Anemia of Chronic Disease

IL-6 upregulates Hepcidin;

Hepcidin promotes intracellular storage of Iron, and inhibits its GIT absorption

130

Infectious etiology of Pure Red Cell Aplasia

Parvovirus B19

131

Pathophysiology: Myelophthisic Anemia

Anemia from ANY space-occupying lesion that replaces normal marrow elements

132

Autoantibodies involved in ITP

Antibodies (IgG) against Gp IIb/IIIa and Gp Ib-IX (80%)

133

Pathophysiology: Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia

Type I:
Direct aggregating effect of Heparin

Type II:
Platelet activation and aggregation initiated by antibodies directed against Heparin-Platelet Factor 4 Complex


134

Most common hematologic manifestation of HIV

HIV-associated Thrombocytopenia

135

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Fever
Neurologic Manifestations

Decreased ADAMTS13 (metalloproteinase that degrades vWF)

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic Purpura

136

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
Thrombocytopenia
Renal Failure
Normal ADAMTS13

Associated with EHEC infections (Typical variant)

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

137

True or False?

Glanzmann Thrombasthenia presents with Thrombocytopenia

True

138

Most common inherited bleeding disorder

vWF Disease
(Autosomal Dominant)

139

Types of vWF Disease

Type 1: Mild, Quantitative
Type 2: Qualitative
Type 3: Severe, Quantitative

140

Most common hereditary syndrome associated with life-threatening bleeding

Hemophilia
(X-linked Recessive)

141

X-linked Recessive
Factor VIII Deficiency

Diagnostic: Factor Assay

Hemophilia A

142

X-linked Recessive
Factor IX Deficiency

Diagnostic: Factor Assay

Hemophilia B
(Christmas Disease)

143

Hemophilia Severity

Mild: 6-50%
Moderate: 2-5%
Severe: < or = 1%

144

Pathophysiology: Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

Activation of PMNs in the lung vasculature

145

Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage secondary to fibrin thrombi

Waterhouse-Friedrichsen Syndrome

146

1. Large vascular tumors
2. Thrombocytopenia
3. Consumptive Coagulopathy

Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome

147

Histologic manifstation of ARDS

Diffuse alveolar damage

148

Type of emphysma involving the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli.

Deficiency in anti-proteases dictate pathogenessis

Panacinar
(versus Centriacinar)

149

Curschmann Spirals

Whorls of shed epithelium

Seen in Status Asthmaticus

150

Charcot-Leyden Crystals

Eosinophilic crystals seen in Status Asthmaticus

151

Pathophysiology: Kartagener Syndrome

Prmary ciliary dyskinesia

152

Earliest lesion in interstitial pneumonia

Fibroblast Focus

153

Late lesion in Interstitial Pneumonia

Honeycomb Fibrosis

154

Nonneoplastic lung reaction to inhaled organic/inorganic dust, usually in the workplace

Pneumoconioses

155

Coal macules (macrophages) within a collagen fiber network

Coal Nodules

156

Most commonly implicated: Quartz
Increased susceptibility to TB
CXR: Eggshell Calcifications

Silicosis

157

Carcinogenic mechanism of Asbestos

1. Amphibole geometric form
2. Free radical generation
3. Surface for adhesion of other carcinogenic substances

158

Most common malignancy associated with Asbestos

Lung carcinoma

159

Mean PA pressure at rest

> 25mm Hg

160

Most common cause of CAP

Streptococcus pneumoniae

161

Most common bacterial cause of acute COPD exacerbation

Hemophilus influenzae

162

Second most common bacterial cause of acute COPD exacerbations

Moraxella catarrhalis

163

Organism associated with:
Post-viral pneumonia
Pneumonia in IV drug users
HCAP
Lung Abscesses
Empyema

Staphylococcus aureus

164

Most common cause of gram negative bacterial pneumonia

Klebsiella pneumoniae

165

Pontiac Fever
Legionnaire's Disease

Legionella pneumophila

166

Major cause of pandemic and epidemic viral pneumonia

Influenza A Virus
(Orthomyxovirus)

167

Cardinal histologic change in Lung Abscesses

Suppurative destruction of parenchyma within the cavitation

168

Most common lung carcinoma
Peripherally located
Female, Non-smokers
No paraneoplastic syndromes

Adenocarcinoma

169

Second most common lung carcinoma
Centrally located
Males, Smokers
Paraneoplastic: Hypercalcemia

Squamous Cell

170

Third most common lung carcinoma
Either central or peripheral
Strongest association with smokers
Paraneoplastic: SIADH, Cushing
No precursor lesions

Small Cell

171

Azzopardi Effect

Basophilic staining of vascular walls, indicating adherent DNA from necrotic cells

172

Pathophysiology:
Lambert Eaton Myesthenic Syndrome

Paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against presynaptic calcium channels in the NMJ

173

Paraneoplastic syndrome associated with Pancoast tumors

Horner Syndrome

174

Low-grade malignant epithelial neoplasm
Neuroendocrine origin
Intraluminal polypoid mass in mainstem bronchi
"Collar Button" Lesion

Carcinoids

175

Volume of pleural fluid

15 L

176

Light Criteria

1. Pleural fluid to serum protein ratio > 0.5
2. Pleural fluid to serum LDH ratio > 0.6
3. Pleural fluid greater than 2/3 the normal upper limit in serum

If suspecting transudative fluid, difference between serum and pleural fluid protein >31 g/dL

177

Pneumothorax sufficient to cause compression of the mediastinal structures

Tension

178

Pulmonary tumor
Dense fibrous tissue with occasional cysts
Whorls of reticulin and collagen with spindle cells
CD34 (+)
Keratin (-)

Solitary Fibrous Tumor

179

Pulmonary Tumor
Thick, soft, gelatinous, pink tumor
Histology: Epithelioid (60%), Sarcomatoid, Mixed

Strong association with Asbestos

Malignant Mesothelioma

180

Main cause of tooth loss before age 35

Dental carries

181

Calcified dental plaque

Calculus

182

Inflammation of periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and cementum

Periodontitis

183

Common pathogens for Periodontitis

Actinobacillus
Porphyromonas
Prevotella

184

Painful, shallow oral ulcers
Most common during first 2 decades of life
Associated with Behcet Disease
Regresses in 7-10 days

Aphthuous Ulcer

185

High risk of recurrence is an indication for complete excision to the level of the periosteum

Pyogenic Granuloma

186

HSV 1 Infection
Gingival involvement
Painful ulcerations with serous vesicles/bullae
Intracellular and intercellular edema (Acantholysis)

Diagnostic: Tzanck Smear

Acute Herpetic Gingivostomatitis

187

HSV 2 Infection
Reactivation of latent infection
Site of primary inoculation and areas sharing same innervation
Painful ulcerations with serous vesicles/bullae
Intracellular and intercellular edema (Acantholysis)

Diagnostic: Tzanck Smear

Recurrent Herpetic Stomatitis

188

Most common oral fungal infection

Candidiasis

189

Histologic manifstation of ARDS

Diffuse alveolar damage

190

Type of emphysma involving the respiratory bronchioles and the alveoli.

Deficiency in anti-proteases dictate pathogenessis

Panacinar
(versus Centriacinar)

191

Curschmann Spirals

Whorls of shed epithelium

Seen in Status Asthmaticus

192

Charcot-Leyden Crystals

Eosinophilic crystals seen in Status Asthmaticus

193

Pathophysiology: Kartagener Syndrome

Prmary ciliary dyskinesia

194

Earliest lesion in interstitial pneumonia

Fibroblast Focus

195

Late lesion in Interstitial Pneumonia

Honeycomb Fibrosis

196

Nonneoplastic lung reaction to inhaled organic/inorganic dust, usually in the workplace

Pneumoconioses

197

Coal macules (macrophages) within a collagen fiber network

Coal Nodules

198

Most commonly implicated: Quartz
Increased susceptibility to TB
CXR: Eggshell Calcifications

Silicosis

199

Carcinogenic mechanism of Asbestos

1. Amphibole geometric form
2. Free radical generation
3. Surface for adhesion of other carcinogenic substances

200

Most common malignancy associated with Asbestos

Lung carcinoma

201

Mean PA pressure at rest

> 25mm Hg

202

Seen in EBV Infections
White, confluent, hyperkeratotic plaques that cannot be scraped off

Hairy Leukoplakia

203

Comprise 95% of head and neck cancers

Tumors associated with smoking and alcoholism (Classical) have worse prognoses than thos associated with HPv 16

Squamous Cell CA

204

True cyst
Usually solitary
Associated with impacted third molar
Recurrence in incomplete resection

Dentigirous Cyst

205

True Cyst
Keratinized
Solitary (80%), posterior mandible
Locally aggressive; recurs with incomplete excision
Associated with Gorlin Syndrome

Kertatocystic Odontogenic Tumor
(Odontogenic Keratocyst)

206

Pathophysiology: Gorlin Syndrome

Inherited multisystemic disorder characterized by an increased risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer

207

Most common epithelial odontogenic tumor

Ameloblastoma

208

Pathophysiology: Schneiderian Papilloma

Histologically benign, biologically aggressive nasopharyngeal tumor.

Associated with HPV 6 and HPV 11

209

Most radiosensitive type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Undifferentiated

210

Single or multiple laryngeal nodules
Squamous cortex with loose myxoid core
Associated with smoking and voice straining
No risk of malignancy

Reactive Nodules

211

Elderly males (60's)
Persistent hoarseness, dysphagia, dysphonia
Hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence
Most common type: Squamous Cell

Laryngeal Carcinoma

212

Most common causes of acute bacterial otitis media

1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
2. Haemophilus influenzae, non-typable
3. Moraxella catarrhalis

213

Common site of Otosclerosis

Rim of the Oval Window

214

Remnant of the second branchial arch
Presents as lateral neck mass along SCM
True cysts

Branchial Cleft Cyst

Also known as
Cervical Lymphoepithelial Cyst

215

Remnant of embryonic thyroid descent
True cyst
Presents as midline neck mass

Most common congenital anomaly of the Thyroid

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

216

Types of Paragangliomas by location

Paravertebral (Sympathetic)

Aorticopulmonary Chain (Parasympathetic)

217

Histologic features of Paragangliomas

Zellballen with delicate vascular septae
Salt-and-pepper Chromatin
No Atypia

218

Most common cause of Xerostomia

Drugs

219

Most common type of salivary gland lesion

Mucocoele

220

True cysts associated with sublingual duct damage

Ranula

221

Most common form of viral sialadenitis

Mumps

222

Most commonly affected gland in sialolithiasis

Submandibular

223

Most common site of salivary gland tumors

Parotid Gland

224

Most common salivary gland tumor

Pleiomorphic Adenoma

225

Most common primary malignant salivary gland tumor

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

226

Second most common bengn tumor of the salivary glands
Almost exclusively involves Parotids
Associated with smoking

Warthin Tumor

Also known as:
Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum

227

Seen in EBV Infections
White, confluent, hyperkeratotic plaques that cannot be scraped off

Hairy Leukoplakia

228

Comprise 95% of head and neck cancers

Tumors associated with smoking and alcoholism (Classical) have worse prognoses than those associated with HPV 16

Squamous Cell CA

229

True cyst
Usually solitary
Associated with impacted third molar
Recurrence in incomplete resection

Dentigirous Cyst

230

True Cyst
Keratinized
Solitary (80%), posterior mandible
Locally aggressive; recurs with incomplete excision
Associated with Gorlin Syndrome

Kertatocystic Odontogenic Tumor
(Odontogenic Keratocyst)

231

Pathophysiology: Gorlin Syndrome

Inherited multisystemic disorder characterized by an increased risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer

232

Most common epithelial odontogenic tumor

Ameloblastoma

233

Pathophysiology: Schneiderian Papilloma

Histologically benign, biologically aggressive nasopharyngeal tumor.

Associated with HPV 6 and HPV 11

234

Most radiosensitive type of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Undifferentiated

235

Single or multiple laryngeal nodules
Squamous cortex with loose myxoid core
Associated with smoking and voice straining
No risk of malignancy

Reactive Nodules

236

Elderly males (60's)
Persistent hoarseness, dysphagia, dysphonia
Hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence
Most common type: Squamous Cell

Laryngeal Carcinoma

237

Most common causes of acute bacterial otitis media

1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
2. Haemophilus influenzae, non-typable
3. Moraxella catarrhalis

238

Common site of Otosclerosis

Rim of the Oval Window

239

Remnant of the second branchial arch
Presents as lateral neck mass along SCM
True cysts

Branchial Cleft Cyst

Also known as
Cervical Lymphoepithelial Cyst

240

Remnant of embryonic thyroid descent
True cyst
Presents as midline neck mass

Most common congenital anomaly of the Thyroid

Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

241

Types of Paragangliomas by location

Paravertebral (Sympathetic)

Aorticopulmonary Chain (Parasympathetic)

242

Histologic features of Paragangliomas

Zellballen with delicate vascular septae
Salt-and-pepper Chromatin
No Atypia

243

Most common cause of Xerostomia

Drugs

244

Most common type of salivary gland lesion

Mucocoele

245

True cysts associated with sublingual duct damage

Ranula

246

Most common form of viral sialadenitis

Mumps

247

Most commonly affected gland in sialolithiasis

Submandibular

248

Most common site of salivary gland tumors

Parotid Gland

249

Most common salivary gland tumor

Pleiomorphic Adenoma

250

Most common primary malignant salivary gland tumor

Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma

251

Second most common bengn tumor of the salivary glands
Almost exclusively involves Parotids
Associated with smoking

Warthin Tumor

Also known as:
Papillary Cystadenoma Lymphomatosum