Pathology: Structure and Morphology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology: Structure and Morphology Deck (11):
1

Define granulopoiesis.

The production and maturation of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

2

What are the growth factors that stimulate the production of neutrophils and monocytes respectively?

G-CSF : granulocyte colony stimulating factor
GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor

3

What is erythropoietin?

EPO is a growth factor made in the kidneys as a response to hypoxia. Stimulates red cell differentiation from stem cells and proliferation of red cells

4

What does MCV measure?

mean cell volume. The average size of red cells in femtoliters

5

What does MCH measure?

mean cell hemoglobin, the mean hemoglobin content of red cells in picograms. =Hb/RBC

6

What does MCHC measure and what does a high value indicate?

mean cell hemoglobin concentration. =Hb/HCT expressed in g/dL. A high value means spherolocytes

7

How does bone marrow cellularity vary by age?

child: red marrow mostly cells and little fat
adult: fewer ell snad increased fat
red marrow: sternum, ribs, vertebrae, skull, pelvis, and proximal ends of long bones for adults
yellow marrow: inactive, fatty

8

Define erythrocytosis.

increase in red cell county. May be physiological (high altitude). may be result of increased EPO in response to sleep apnea, smoking, EPO secreting tumor, neoplasm.

9

What is the difference between acute and chronic leukemias?

acute: death <6 monts, little or no differentiation, i.e. blast cells
chronic: death after 1 year+, if untreated. differentiation to stages more mature than blast cells.

10

What is the difference between a lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia?

lymphoma: neoplastic proliferations of lymphocytes that originate in extra medullary sites
lymphoid leukemias: originate in bone marrow

11

What gene controls transcription/production of EPO? "oxygen sensor"

HIF-1 hypoxia inducible factor