Pathology: Structure and Morphology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology: Structure and Morphology Deck (11):

Define granulopoiesis.

The production and maturation of neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils


What are the growth factors that stimulate the production of neutrophils and monocytes respectively?

G-CSF : granulocyte colony stimulating factor
GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor


What is erythropoietin?

EPO is a growth factor made in the kidneys as a response to hypoxia. Stimulates red cell differentiation from stem cells and proliferation of red cells


What does MCV measure?

mean cell volume. The average size of red cells in femtoliters


What does MCH measure?

mean cell hemoglobin, the mean hemoglobin content of red cells in picograms. =Hb/RBC


What does MCHC measure and what does a high value indicate?

mean cell hemoglobin concentration. =Hb/HCT expressed in g/dL. A high value means spherolocytes


How does bone marrow cellularity vary by age?

child: red marrow mostly cells and little fat
adult: fewer ell snad increased fat
red marrow: sternum, ribs, vertebrae, skull, pelvis, and proximal ends of long bones for adults
yellow marrow: inactive, fatty


Define erythrocytosis.

increase in red cell county. May be physiological (high altitude). may be result of increased EPO in response to sleep apnea, smoking, EPO secreting tumor, neoplasm.


What is the difference between acute and chronic leukemias?

acute: death <6 monts, little or no differentiation, i.e. blast cells
chronic: death after 1 year+, if untreated. differentiation to stages more mature than blast cells.


What is the difference between a lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia?

lymphoma: neoplastic proliferations of lymphocytes that originate in extra medullary sites
lymphoid leukemias: originate in bone marrow


What gene controls transcription/production of EPO? "oxygen sensor"

HIF-1 hypoxia inducible factor