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Flashcards in Patient cases Deck (12):

what problems are associate with chest pain and what other common symptoms arise too?

-Acute coronary syndrome: due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries. Pain radiates to the left shoulder or jaw, crushing, central and associated with nausea and sweating.
-Stable angina: lack of blood flow to the heart. Pain is triggered by physical activity or emotional stress.
-Gastrooesopageal reflux disease (GERD): the return if the stomach's contents back into the esophagus. Burning sensation in your chest usually after eating.
-Pectoral muscle injury: sudden severe pain and tearing sensation in the chest.


what are the common symptoms of aortic stenosis?

-chest pain
-decreased activity in general
- lethargy ( a lack of energy)
-balance issues


what is acute coronary syndrome, stable angina, gastrooesophageal reflux disease, pectoral muscular injury.

Acute coronary syndrome:
Inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle. Includes myocardial infarction and unstable angina.

Stable angina:
Inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle precipitated by exertion and relieved by rest.

Gastrooesophageal reflux disease:
Acidic stomach contents enter lower oesophagus and cause heartburn.

Pectoral muscular injury:
Strained or torn chest muscles that are painful when used.


what is associated with sharp and stabbing pain?

Musculo-skeletal problems


what is nausea and muscle damage usually associated with?

Heart attack symptoms.


what type of pain is associated with cardiac problem?

Dull pain


what does abnormal levels of troponin mean?

Irregular levels of troponin is usually related to cardiac muscle damage, it means it is NOT normal.


what are the recommendations for diet for someone with cardiac problems and how can you know this?


-high HDL
-low LDL

Good fats are generally liquid at room temperature.

-Lots of fruit and veg.


How does salt affect our body?

-Salt associated with increased blood pressure.
-Hypertension is a CVD that can cause other CVDs.

Therefore salt intake should be reduced


what is the relationship between mortality and ethanol?

J-shaped curve between mortality and ethanol.


what information does an ECG provide?

provides information on conduction system and cardiac morphology; ST segment of particular interest in chest pain


how can troponin be measured and when does this spike?

can be measured using a sensitive laboratory test usually low in concentration which spikes 12h after MI