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LSS 1- CVS > Patient cases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patient cases Deck (12):
1

what problems are associate with chest pain and what other common symptoms arise too?

-Acute coronary syndrome: due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries. Pain radiates to the left shoulder or jaw, crushing, central and associated with nausea and sweating.
-Stable angina: lack of blood flow to the heart. Pain is triggered by physical activity or emotional stress.
-Gastrooesopageal reflux disease (GERD): the return if the stomach's contents back into the esophagus. Burning sensation in your chest usually after eating.
-Pectoral muscle injury: sudden severe pain and tearing sensation in the chest.

2

what are the common symptoms of aortic stenosis?

-Breathlessness
-chest pain
-decreased activity in general
- lethargy ( a lack of energy)
-balance issues

3

what is acute coronary syndrome, stable angina, gastrooesophageal reflux disease, pectoral muscular injury.

Acute coronary syndrome:
Inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle. Includes myocardial infarction and unstable angina.

Stable angina:
Inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle precipitated by exertion and relieved by rest.

Gastrooesophageal reflux disease:
Acidic stomach contents enter lower oesophagus and cause heartburn.

Pectoral muscular injury:
Strained or torn chest muscles that are painful when used.

4

what is associated with sharp and stabbing pain?

Musculo-skeletal problems

5

what is nausea and muscle damage usually associated with?

Heart attack symptoms.

6

what type of pain is associated with cardiac problem?

Dull pain

7

what does abnormal levels of troponin mean?

Irregular levels of troponin is usually related to cardiac muscle damage, it means it is NOT normal.

8

what are the recommendations for diet for someone with cardiac problems and how can you know this?

FATS

-high HDL
-low LDL

Good fats are generally liquid at room temperature.

-Lots of fruit and veg.
-

9

How does salt affect our body?

-Salt associated with increased blood pressure.
-Hypertension is a CVD that can cause other CVDs.

Therefore salt intake should be reduced

10

what is the relationship between mortality and ethanol?

J-shaped curve between mortality and ethanol.

11

what information does an ECG provide?

provides information on conduction system and cardiac morphology; ST segment of particular interest in chest pain

12

how can troponin be measured and when does this spike?

can be measured using a sensitive laboratory test usually low in concentration which spikes 12h after MI