Flashcards in Pauillac AOP Deck (29):
Introduce Pauillac AOP to a table
Pauillac AOP is considered classic claret, and boasts three first growths: Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Mouton-Rothschild, and Château Latour. In Pauillac the gravel topsoil of the Haut-Médoc is at its deepest point, and the Cabernet Sauvignon-based wines are structured and long-lived. Lafite and Latour represent the pinnacle of Pauillac: Latour produces wines of brooding depth and concentration and Lafite emphasizes aromatics and elegance.
Pauillac is a wine growing commune and Appellation d'origine contrôlée within Haut-Médoc in Bordeaux, centred on the small town of Pauillac.
Hugh Johnson has said, "If one had to single out one commune of Bordeaux to head the list, there would be no argument. It would be Pauillac.". Pauillac includes 3 of the 5 premier cru châteaux of Bordeaux: Latour, Lafite Rothschild and Mouton Rothschild.
The wines of Pauillac are often considered the quintessence of Bordeaux wines.
Communes of Production
Cissac-Médoc, Pauillac, Saint-Estèphe, Saint-Julien-Beychevelle, Saint-Sauveur
Styles and Encépagement
Rouge: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec, Carmenère
Minimum Potential Alcohol
Minimum Must Weight
180 g/l (189 g/l for Merlot)
Maximum Residual Sugar
Wines may not be released before June 15 of the year following the harvest
Minimum Planting Density
7,000 vines per hectare
Maximum Yields (Rendement de Base)
Primary Soil Type
Sandy with light gravel
Pauillac is on the left bank of the Gironde. St-Julien is to the south. A stream called Ruisseau de Juillac marks part of the boundary between the two communes; other parts are marked by a stone wall and a country lane. To the north, across the Jalle du Breuil, lies St-Estèphe. Pauillac is bounded on the west by the parish of St Sauveur and the Landes forest. All three communes lie within the Haut-Médoc.
The town of Pauillac is the largest in the Médoc, with a population of over 5000. Pauillac is somewhat more elevated than the surrounding area, rising to a peak of nearly 30 metres above sea-level in the region of Château Pontet-Canet.
The soil is gravelly, as with most of the Haut-Médoc. The forest to the west shelters the vines from the Atlantic winds. Pauillac contains around 1200 hectares of vineyards.
Châteaux of Pauillac, First growths
Château Latour, Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Mouton Rothschild
Châteaux of Pauillac, Second growths
Château Pichon-Longueville, Château Pichon-Longueville-Lalande
Châteaux of Pauillac, Fourth growth
Châteaux of Pauillac, Fifth growths
Château Pontet-Canet, Château Batailley, Château Haut-Batailley, Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste, Château Grand-Puy-Ducasse, Château Lynch-Bages, Château Lynch-Moussas, Château d'Armailhac, Château Haut-Bages-Libéral, Château Pédesclaux, Château Clerc-Milon, Château Croizet Bages
Notable unclassed châteaux of Pauillac
Château La Couronne, Château Pibran, Château Haut-Bages-Averous, Château Haut-Bages Monpelou, Château Fonbadet
Introduce Château Latour
Château Latour is a French wine estate, rated as a First Growth under the 1855 Bordeaux Classification. Latour lies at the very southeastern tip of the commune of Pauillac in the Médoc region to the north-west of Bordeaux, at its border with Saint-Julien, and only a few hundred metres from the banks of the Gironde estuary.
What are the wines of Château Latour
The estate produces three red wines in all. In addition to its Grand vin, Latour has also produced the second wine Les Forts de Latour since 1966, and a third wine, simply named Pauillac, has been released every year since 1990.
Production of Château Latour
The estate has 78 hectares (190 acres) of vineyard, of which a 47-hectare (120-acre) portion near the château is named l'Enclos, where fruit exclusive to the grand vin is grown. The composition of grape varieties is 80% Cabernet Sauvignon, 18% Merlot, and 2% of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot.
The grand vin Chateau Latour, typically a blend of 75% Cabernet Sauvignon, 20% Merlot, with the remainder Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc, normally has an annual production of 18,000 cases. The second wine Les Forts de Latour, typically 70% Cabernet Sauvignon and 30% Merlot, has an average annual production of 11,000 cases.
Introduce Château Lafite Rothschild
Château Lafite Rothschild is a wine estate in France, owned by members of the Rothschild family since the 19th century. The name Lafite comes from the Gascon term "la hite" meaning "small hill".
Lafite was one of four wine-producing Châteaux of Bordeaux originally awarded First Growth status in the 1855 Classification, which was based on recent prices. Since then, it has been a consistent producer of one of the world's most expensive red wines.
Wines of Château Lafite Rothschild
In addition to the first growth, around a third of the wine is released as a second wine under the label Carruades de Lafite.
Vineyards of Château Lafite Rothschild
The vineyard is one of the largest in the Médoc at 107 hectares, and produces around 35,000 cases annually, of which between 15,000 and 25,000 are first growth. Its vines are around 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 25% Merlot, 3% Cabernet Franc, and 2% Petit Verdot, whereas the final wine is between 80% and 95% Cabernet Sauvignon, 5% and 20% Merlot, and up to 3% Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot. Occasionally exceptions are made, such as the 1961 vintage which was 100% Cabernet Sauvignon.
Introduce Château Mouton Rothschild
Château Mouton Rothschild is a wine estate located in the village of Pauillac in the Médoc, 50 km (30 mi) north-west of the city of Bordeaux, France.
Its red wine of the same name is regarded as one of the world's greatest clarets. Originally known as Château Brane-Mouton it was renamed by Nathaniel de Rothschild in 1853 to Château Mouton Rothschild. It was the first estate to begin complete château bottling of the harvest.
History of Château Mouton Rothschild
The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 was based entirely on recent market prices for a vineyard's wines, with one exception: Château Mouton Rothschild. Despite the market prices for their vineyard's wines equalling that of Château Lafite Rothschild, Château Mouton Rothschild was excluded from First Great Growth status, an act that Baron Philippe de Rothschild referred to as "the monstrous injustice". It is widely believed[weasel words] that the exception was made because the vineyard had recently been purchased by an Englishman and was no longer in French ownership.
In 1973, Mouton was elevated to "first growth" status after decades of intense lobbying by its powerful and influential owner, the only change in the original 1855 classification (excepting the 1856 addition of Château Cantemerle). This prompted a change of motto: previously, the motto of the wine was Premier ne puis, second ne daigne, Mouton suis. ("First, I cannot be. Second, I do not deign to be. Mouton I am."), and it was changed to Premier je suis, Second je fus, Mouton ne change. ("First, I am. Second, I used to be. Mouton does not change.")
Vineyards of Château Mouton Rothschild
Château Mouton Rothschild has its vineyards on the slopes leading down to the Gironde Estuary, in the Bordeaux region, mainly producing grapes of the Cabernet Sauvignon variety. Today, Château Mouton Rothschild has 203 acres (0.8 km2) of grape vines made up of Cabernet Sauvignon (77%), Merlot (11%), Cabernet Franc (10%) and Petit Verdot (2%). Their wine is fermented in oak vats (they are one of the last châteaux in the Médoc to use them) and then matured in new oak casks. It is also frequently confused with the widely distributed generic Bordeaux Mouton Cadet.