Paul's Weight Loss And Kemal's Obesity Flashcards Preview

MBBS1 Abdomen and Pelvis > Paul's Weight Loss And Kemal's Obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Paul's Weight Loss And Kemal's Obesity Deck (177):
1

Which way do external oblique abdominis muscle fibres run?

Forwards and downwards

2

What percentage of fat should a baby have?

14%

3

What are the superficial veins that drain upwards from the umbilicus called?

Thoraco-epigastric or thoraco-abdominal veins

4

What is Wilson's disease?

Impaired billary secretion of Cu2+ so there is build up of Cu2+ in liver causing brain and liver damage

5

What do B-100 receptors do?

Remove LDL cholesterol from circulation

6

What are the attachments of the internal oblique abdominis?

The lateral half of the inguinal ligament, iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia are the attachments and the muscle inserts onto ribs 9-12 and linea alba. The inferior part of the muscle inserts onto pubic crest

7

What is the new orally active chelator?

Deferiprone

8

What is the precursor for ketone body formation?

Fatty acid oxidation in the fasting state

9

Which way do transverse abdominis muscle fibres run?

Transversely arranged

10

What does zinc deficiency cause?

Severe skin lesions could lead to death by infection

11

What does acetyl-CoA carboxylase do?

Produces manoyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA in fatty acid synthesis

12

Describe the guarding reflex

If the parietal peritoneum is irritated the anterior abdominal muscles may contract spontaneously to provide resistance to pressure and reduce movement that may permit spread of infection

13

Where does the inguinal ligament run?

Between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic tubercle

14

Which organs are secondary retroperitoneal? (pussy cat dolls)

P = Pancreas

C = Colon (only ascending and descending)

D = Duodenum (only parts 2-4)

15

How much of metabolised energy is lost as heat?

50%

16

How are transferin levels affected by iron overload?

They decrease

17

What omega is linoleic acid?

Omega 6

18

What are mesenteries?

Posterior slings of visceral peritoneum that loop around parts of the alimentary tract

19

What do high levels of ferritin indicate?

Iron overload

20

What are the complications of diabetes?

Microangiopathy (thickening of basement membrane)
Retinopathy (blindness)
Neuropathy (postural hypotension, impotence, foot ulcers)

21

What is a good source of thiamine?

Raw fish

22

How must insulin be structurally changed before it is active?

Pro insulin must have C-peptide cleaved from it by proteolysis to become active

23

What is another name for the gastro-hepatic ligament?

The lesser omentum

24

What inhibits carnitine shuttle, preventing B-oxidation of lipids?

Manoyl- CoA

25

Where is the lesser sac?

A space trapped behind the stomach

26

How many iron molecules can one ferritin bind?

4300

27

How will a thiamine deficiency manifest?

Dry Beri Beri- skinny bandy legs, symmetrical peripheral neuropathy
Wet Beri Beri- swelling in face and oedema as well as karsakoff's psychosis (mainly in alcohols)

28

Why may troponin levels be raised in patients with malabsorption?

Heart damage due to lack of vitamins D

29

Which mutation leads to type I genetic haemochromatosis?

HFE

30

What is haemosideran?

Insoluble iron storage

31

What does transversus abdominis do?

Abdominal compression during forced expiration and stabilisation of the back

32

How is ventral mesentery different to dorsal mesentery?

It is shorter and has a gap under it allowing communication between the two halves of the peritoneum cavity

33

What forms the inguinal canal's walls, floor and roof?

The anterior wall is formed by external oblique aponeurosis and internal oblique aponeurosis in its lateral third. The posterior wall is formed by the fascia transversalis and by the conjoint tendon in its medial third. The floor is formed from the upturned lower border of external oblique abdominis which forms the inguinal ligament. The roof is formed of conjoint tendon.

34

What is the greater omentum?

A doubled layered fat filled apron of peritoneum arising from the greatr curvature of the stomach which hangs over the transverse colon and expands to cover small instestine

35

How might an indirect inguinal hernia occur?

It may emerge through the deep ring and travel the length of the inguinal canal exiting where the wall is weaker at the superficial inguinal ring

36

Where is biotin (b7) found?

Gut flora, peanuts, chocolate, egg yolks

37

How is the iron from transferin taken up by cells?

Receptor mediated endocytosis into the cell after which the receptor- transferin complexes migrate into clathrin coated pits. Intravesicalar pH increases to 5.5 and clathrin coat is lost. Fe2+ released and taken up by ferritin and transferin moves back to cell surface

38

What is satiety?

The hypothalamus initiating the sensation of fullness

39

Which nerve supplies the muscle fibres of the conjoint tendon?

Ilioinguinal nerve from L1

40

Which anterior abdominal wall muscle lacks supply from L1 (ilioinguinal nerve)?

External oblique abdominis

41

What percentage of fat should a woman have?

28% fat

42

What does orlistat do?

Decreases fat absorption in small intestine to combat obesity but causes steahorrea if not taken with low fat diet

43

What are the symptoms of type I genetic haemochromatosis be?

Liver failure, diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure, pigmentation of skin

44

Where do lymph nodes above the umbilicus drain to?

Axillary nodes

45

What do external obliques abdominis muscles do?

The right external oblique pulls the right side of the chest to downwards to the left hip and vice versa

46

What exits through the superficial inguinal ring?

Ductus deferens in male and round ligament of the uterus in female

47

What does Camper's fascia contain?

Superficial veins and fat together with cutaneous nerves

48

What is secreted to imitate hunger when stomach is empty?

Gherlin and neuropeptide

49

What is the origin of the inferior epigastric artery?

The ascending artery from the external iliac

50

What is Merke's disease?

The inability to absorb copper from small intestine

51

What will happen in defective LDL receptors?

High LDLs as not taken up by liver

52

What does the lateral crus of the superficial inguinal ring attach to?

The pubic tubercle

53

What does vitamins b12 do and where is it found?

It is a carrier of methyl groups in metabolism of branched amino acids and it can only be found in animal products so vegans must take supplements

54

How is BMR calculated?

kJ/ hour/ kg body weight and accounts for energy used in basic bodily functions

55

What muscles lie posteriorly are are pre vertebral muscles?

Quadratus lumborum and psoas major

56

Which muscles form anterior rectus sheath above the umbilicus?

External oblique and half of internal oblique

57

What is the linea alba?

The avascular white line where muscles meet in the midline of the abdomen

58

What causes ketoacidosis in diabetes type 1?

No insulin release on excess keto acid production so excessive protein breakdown continues to happen

59

What causes pernicious anaemia?

Loss of gastric parietal cells which secrete intrinsic factor which is essential for b12 absorption in the ilieum

60

Why does the female have two pouches at the lowest point of the perineal cavity and what are they called?

Females have the rectouterine pouch of Douglas and the vesicouterine pouch in front because the fold of peritoneum over the uterus divides the fossa between anterior and posterior folds of peritoneum into two.

61

What are irons main functions apart from oxygen carriage?

Oxidative energy production, mitochondrial respiration, inactivation of harmful O2 radicals and ribonuclease reductase in DNA synthesis

62

What are the energy contents of fat, alcohol, carbohydrates and proteins?

Fat: 9.2 cal/g
Alcohol: 7cal/g
Carbohydrate and protein: 4cal/g

63

Where do the superior and inferior epigastric arteries anastomose?

At the level of the umbilicus

64

Where are femoral hernias?

Through the femoral canal which is behind the inguinal ligament and lateral to public tubercule

65

What are the 9 divisions of the abdomen(from left to right, superior to inferior)?

Most superiorly there is the epigastric region with right and left hypochondriac regions either side. Then there is the umbilical region with left and right lumbar regions either side. Most inferiorly there is the hypogastric region with left and right iliac regions either side.

66

What is the superficial inguinal ring?

The exit point of the inguinal canal

67

What does acytl transferase do?

Picks up cholesterol from tissues when activated by Apo A1 on HDLs

68

Which muscle divides pelvis from perineum?

Pelvic diaphragm

69

What is endo-abdominal fascia?

The layer of deep fascia inside the layers of muscles, lining the whole abdomino-pelvic cavity

70

When does Fe2+ produce hydroxyl radicals?

In the presence of the enzymes superoxide

71

What are the attachments of transversus abdominis?

Originates from the internal surfaces of bone and cartilage forming thoracic inlet and iliac crest. It also arises from lateral third of inguinal ligament as well as thoracolumbar fascia and medially to the linea alba.

72

Which mutation leads to type II genetic haemochromatosis?

Hemojeulin

73

What is Crohn's disease?

An inflammation of the GI wall from lumen to serosa usually in the terminal ileum

74

What are retro and intra-peritoneal organs?

Organs without mesentery are retroperitoneal and organs with mesentery are intraperitoneal

75

What bounds the abdomen above and below?

Above the diaphragm and below the upper border of the sacrum and the pelvic brim

76

Where are thoracic abdominal nerves derived from?

Anterior rami of T6/7- L1 spinal nerves

77

What is vitamin K used for and what will it's deficiency cause?

Used as coagulation factor so deficiency will increase clotting time

78

What do all group B vitamins have in common?

They are all co enzymes in metabolic pathways

79

What is the tunica vaginalis?

In development there is a protrusion of peritoneal membrane called the processus vaginalis. The tunica vaginalis is the terminal portion of this. It is an isolated sac of serous fluid which the testes are embedded in and it acts as a cushion

80

Where is the deep inguinal ring?

A finger's breath above the mid-point of the inguinal ligament

81

What is a ligament in the context of peritoneum?

The connection between organs that was dorsal mesogastrium in the embryo e.g. gastro-splenic and spleno-renal ligaments

82

When is fat synthesised?

When there's excess glucose in the blood because preferentially glucose will be converted to glycogen until liver is full

83

Where do lymph nodes below the umbilicus drain to?

Superficial inguinal nodes of the groin

84

What will vitamins A deficiency manifest as?

Gel like appearance of eyes and lack of night vision

85

Which muscles form posterior rectus sheath above the umbilicus?

Half of internal oblique, transversus abdominis and transversalis fascia

86

What will happen in Apo C-11 deficiency?

Increased chylomicrons and VLDL

87

List the lipoproteins in order of density from high to low

HDLs are most dense then LDLs then IDLs then VLDLs then finally chylomicrons

88

Where is folate found?

Green vegetables, liver and whole grains

89

What did the falciform ligament used to be?

A double fold of mesogastrium that connected the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

90

What activates lipoprotein lipase?

Insulin

91

How can we test for a patent processus vaginalis?

The tunica vaginalis will swell upon coughing

92

Which mutation leads to type III genetic haemochromatosis?

Transferin receptor

93

What are the linea semi-lunaris?

A lateral curved line caused by the fusion of aponeuroses of the anterior abdominal wall muscles either side of the rectus sheath

94

What are the crura of the superficial inguinal ring?

The medial and lateral margins of the ring are formed by a split in the aponeurosis

95

What does the medial crus of the superficial inguinal ring attach to?

The pubic crest

96

What are the pair of muscles that run vertically down the anterior abdominal wall?

The rectus abdominal muscles

97

What does pyrioxidine (b6) do in the body? What causes a deficiency in it?

Essential for metabolism and haemopoiesis esp glucose conversion to glycogen.
Deficiency caused by TB medicine

98

How does TAG cross cell membranes after being transported by chylomicrons from small intestine?

Broken down by lipoprotein lipase in capillary then reassembled after cross membrane as fatty acids and glycerol

99

What is fat used for in the body?

Phospholipid bilayer, precursor for eisosanoids, thromboxanes and prostaglandins

100

When do superficial veins of the abdomen become visible?

When there is blockage of venous drainage such as in liver disease, causes caput medusae or Medusa's head

101

What is the inner layer of the superficial fascia of the abdominal wall called?

Scarpa's fascia

102

What does vitamin D do?

Acts as steroid hormone by binding receptors which interact with DNA. Ensures calcium absorption from the gut

103

What omega is linolenic acid?

Omega 3

104

What does the internal oblique abdominis do?

Stabilises lumbar spine and rotates trunk when pelvis is anchored

105

What opening joins greater and lesser sac?

Epiploic foramen

106

What does biotin do?

It is a prosthetic group for carboxylation in metabolic reactions

107

What is kwashiorkor?

Protein deficiency manifested as decreased oncotic gradient exerted by blood giving rise to oedema esp in stomach

108

What is ferritin and how saturated is it usually?

A soluble iron storage molecule which is 2/3 times saturated

109

Which substances stimulate insulin?

Growth hormone, amino acids and glucose in blood, GI secretin secretion, glucagon release

110

Where is niacin (b3) found in the diet and what does it do in the body?

In cereals and proteins. It is NAD and NADP in redox reactions

111

Which cells produce somatostatin?

Delta cells of islets of Langerhans

112

What does folate do?

Transfer reactions in pyridine and purine synthesis (DNA/RNA synthesis) and amino acid metabolism

113

What compartments does the transverse mesocolon divide the greater sac of the peritoneal cavity into?

Supra and infra-colic departments

114

What are the two main intermediary factors involved in insulin affecting transcription?

Ras and MAPK

115

Which nerves supply the anterior abdominal muscles?

Thoracic abdominal nerves

116

Why does the stomach have a greater and lesser curvature?

In development one side grew faster than the other

117

Where is an inguinal hernia?

Above the inguinal ligament and medial to the pubic tubercule

118

What lies deep to deep fascia in the anterior abdominal wall?

A layer of loose connective tissue known as extra-peritoneal fat. Posteriorly this is known as retro-peritoneal fat

119

What does vitamin C do?

Used for hydroxylation of lysine and proline in collagen formation and stabilisation. Maintains Fe2+ in ferrous state so it can be used

120

What does sibutramine do?

Increases serotonin levels and inducing feelings of happiness and decreases appetite to combat obesity

121

How is insulin release stimulated in the islets of Langerhans?

Glucose and amino acid entry through low affinity channels gives rise to more ATP, closing K+ channels on the cell membrane and opening Ca2+ channels. This increased intracellular Ca2+ stimulates release of insulin vesicle

122

What are the superficial veins that drain downwards from the umbilicus called?

The superficial epigastric veins

123

What is the function of rectus abdominis?

As a flexor of the trunk and depressor of the rib cage

124

Which vitamins are fat soluble? How regularly should they be consumed?

A K D and E are fat soluble, can be stored in the body so no need for regular consumption

125

Which mutation leads to type IV genetic haemochromatosis?

Ferroportin

126

Which artery supplies rectus abdominis by piercing the thin layer below the arcuate line?

Inferior epigastric artery

127

What are the attachments of Scarpa's fascia?

It binds to the fascia lata of the thigh below the inguinal ligament, structures in the perineum as well as thoracolumbar fascia and the fascia lata of buttock and thigh posteriorly

128

What are the water soluble vitamins? How regularly must they be consumed?

The B group and C, must be regularly consumed

129

Where do testes descend from?

The posterior abdominal wall

130

Where is vitamin K found?

Gut flora, green leafy vegetables, milk, cereals

131

What percentage of fat should a man have?

14%

132

What is excess fluid in the tunica vaginalis known as?

Hydrocele

133

Where do thoracic abdominal nerves run?

Around trunk sandwiched between internal oblique abdominis and transversus abdominis muscles

134

What are the normal amounts of iron zinc and copper needed by a typical 70kg adult per day?

2-3 g of iron and zinc
140 mg of copper

135

What can toxicity of vitamin A (retinol and carotene) do?

Lead to birth defects, hair loss, hepatic dysfunction

136

Which two minerals are essential to form oxygen carrying proteins such as cytochrome oxidase?

Fe2+ and Cu2+

137

What is the lesser omentum?

It is a double layer of peritoneum attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver

138

Where do rectus abdominis arise from and insert to?

Arises from pubic crest and inserts onto the lower costal cartilages

139

Why is mid arm circumference a better indicator of body composition than mid leg?

Overweight patients often have oedema in their legs

140

What vitamin are low birth weight babies likely to be deficient in?

Vitamin D

141

How small can the small intestines be and still function?

From their full 6m to 120 cm as long as key structures like the terminal ilieum are intact

142

What is the outer layer of superficial fascia of the abdominal wall called?

Camper's fascia

143

How does insulin stimulate uptake of glucose into muscle and adipose tissue?

Binds to receptor which activates Akt/PKB which up regulates GLUT-4 by releasing them from vesicles and translocating them to cell membrane

144

Where is riboflavin (b2) found in the diet? What does it do in the body?

Milk and dairy products. It is FAD in FMN redox reactions

145

What are the attachments of the external oblique abdominis?

The lower ribs (5-12), the anterior part of the iliac crest posteriorly, it forms the inguinal ligament posteriorly and inserts onto the pubic tubercle, it interdigitates with the linea alba

146

Where are umbilical hernias?

Through the umbilicus

147

Name the retroperitoneal organs (sad pucker)

S = suprarenal glands

A = Aorta and IVC

D = Duodenum (all but the 1st part)

P = Pancreas (all but the tail)

U = Ureter and bladder

C = Colon (ascending and descending)

K = Kidneys

E = Esophagus

R = Rectum (Lower two-thirds)

148

What is the rectus sheath formed of?

Aponeurotic muscle tendons and transversalis fascia around the rectus abdominis

149

What are the boundaries of the inguinal triangle?

Medially is linea semilunaris, laterally is the inferior epigastric artery and the inferior border is the inguinal ligament

150

Why does alcoholism cause thiamine deficiency? (B1)

It inhibits active transport absorption of thiamine from intestine by inhibiting thiamine phosphorylase (which activates thiamine)

151

What will happen in deficiency of apo proteins involved in remnant uptake?

High chylomicrons and VLDL remnant as many remnants in blood

152

How is satiety signalled?

By leptin

153

What layers must the testes transverse to reach the scrotum?

Transversus abdominal fascia then the internal oblique the external oblique

154

What is mesentery?

A sling for an organ of the abdomen made of a double fold of membrane which wraps some organs and provides the visceral peritoneum covering

155

What inhibits hormone sensitive lipase to inhibit breakdown of glycerol and fatty acids?

Insulin

156

What is sorbitol?

An artificial sweetener used by diabetics to alleviate symptoms

157

How is glycogen synthase activates?

Dephosphorylartion

158

Name the intraperitoneal organs (salted spurs)

S = Stomach

A = Appendix

L = Liver

T = Transverse colon

D = duodenum (only the 1st part, though)

S = Small intestines

P = Pancreas (only the tail though)

R = Rectum (only the upper 3rd)

S = Sigmoid colon

S = Spleen

159

Which way do internal oblique abdominis muscle fibres run?

Backwards and downwards

160

When is direct herniation of the inguinal region likely and why?

Should the lower fibres of the conjoint muscle be paralysed. Since they are supplied by L1 ilioinguinal nerve, if this is lesioned e.g. by a slipped disc then the abdominal wall will herniate.

161

What is the junction between upper and lower rectus sheath called?

The arcuate line

162

What are the lines that form the divisions of the abdomen?

Two horizontal and two vertical lines forming the 9 divisions. The vertical lines are mid-clavicular and called lateral lines. The horizontal lines are, superiorly, transpyloric plane (across pylorus of stomach) and, inferiorly, the transtubercular plane (plane between two tubercles of iliac crest)

163

How does movement of the cojoint tendon prevent herniation?

It moves downwards like a shutter as it contracts, to protect the lower half of the inguinal triangle which is particularly vulnerable to herniation as it is only covered with thin fascia transversalis

164

What activates manoyl CoA production in the fed state?

Insulin

165

What will vitamins D deficiency manifest itself as?

Rickets

166

What forms rectus sheath in the lower abdomen posteriorly?

Transversalis fascia only

167

What is a fistula?

Abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces

168

What is a hernia?

A protrusion through the body wall where the muscle layer is weak so peritoneum is pushed towards the skin where pressure is lower

169

What will happen in lipoprotein lipase deficiency?

Increased chylomicrons and VLDLs

170

Where is the greater sac?

A space in front of the stomach and liver

171

Where is the rectovesical pouch in males?

A fossa between anterior and posterior folds of peritoneum, the lowest point of the perineal cavity

172

What is the conjoint tendon?

The aponeurotic tendon of lower part of transversus abdominis and internal oblique abdominis fuse to form this tendon which inserts onto the pubic crest

173

What is the origin of the superior epigastric artery?

A continuation of the thoracic artery of the chest which becomes know as the superior epigastric when it crosses the costal margin

174

What are the three layers of lateral abdominal muscles?

External and internal obliques and transversus abdominis

175

Which substances inhibit insulin?

Adrenaline, cortisol

176

What is marasmus?

General deficiency of energy and protein causing muscle wasting and 40% loss of body weight in the first year of life

177

What forms rectus sheath in the lower abdomen anteriorly?

Aponeurotic sheaths