Flashcards in Pediatric Deck (121):
What is the infectious etiology of croup?
What is the infectious etiology of epiglottitis?
What is the infecitous etiology of exudative tracheitis?
What syndrome are subglottic hemangiomas associated with and what does it stand for?
Posterior fossa/dandy walker
What cancer may develop in a thyroglossal duct cyst?
What anatomy surrounds a 2nd branchial cleft cyst?
posterior and lateral to submandibular gland, lateral to carotid space, anterior to SCM
Which type of pediatric hemangioma shows up at 6 months?
What two syndromes and congenital abnormality is cystic hygroma associated with?
Turners, Downs, coarc
What is the most common extra occular orbital malignancy in kids?
What is the most common pediatric benign orbital mass?
high volumes + perihilar streaky= (2)
non GB neonatal pneumonia
Not high (low or normal) volumes + granular (2)
group B pneumonia
What are the lung findings in meconium aspiration? (2)
ropy asymmetric densities, hyperinflation
What are the lung findings in transient tachypnea of the newborn? (2)
coarse interstitial markings, fluid in fissures
What is the time course of TTN?
peaks at 1 day, resolved by day 3
What are the pulmonary findings of surfactant deficiency? (2)
low volumes with bilateral granular opacities
What excludes SDD?
normal plain film at 6 hours post delivery
High lung volumes in neonates? (3)
meconium aspiration, transient tachypnea, non BH pneumonia
Low lung volumes in neonates? (2)
surfactant deficiency (no effusion), beta hemolytic pneumonia (effusion)
What does chronic lung disease look like in infant?
band like opacities, coarse reticular opacities, hyper aeration
At what age is PIE seen?
At what age is CLD seen?
after 3-4 weeks
Where is bronchopulmonary sequestration most common and at what age does it present?
Which lobe is CLE most common in?
What part of the lungs are affected in CF?
What part of the lungs are affected in primary cilia dyskinesia?
High t8-t10 or low L3-L5
Anterior mediastinal mass that straddles the midline?
Pediatric posterior mediastinal mass differential (5)
neuroblastoma, ewing, askin, neuroenteric cyst, extramedullary hematopoiesis
Age in pleuropulmonary blastoma?
Age in Askin Tumor
What is the most common type of esophageal atresia/fistula?
What is VACTERL?
Vertebral anomalies, anal, cardiac, TE, fistula, renal, limb. 3+ of above
What variant goes between esophagus and trachea?
What is the most common symptomatic vascular ring anomaly?
double aortic arch
What is the most common aortic arch anomaly?
Left arch with aberrant right subclavian artery
What are the five causes of high neonatal obstruction?
midgut volvulus/malrotation, duodenal atresia, duodenal web, annular pancreas, jejunal atresia
What are the five causes of low neonatal obstruction?
Hirschsprung, meconium plug, ileal atresia, meconium ileus, anal/colonic atresia
What causes jejunal atresia?
Which type of gastric volvulus occurs in kids and what is it?
mesenteroaxial, antrum flips near GE junction can cause ischemia
Wind sock =
duodenal web in older kids
What is meconium plug syndrome?
small left colon; NOT associated with CF
rectum smaller than sigmoid=
rectum with sawtooth pattern-
Looks like microcolon but with involvement of the terminal ileum
total colonic aganglionosis
Age of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
What is the criteria for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis?
What should pressure not exceed in reducing HPS?
What target size needs air enema in HPS?
What is distal intestinal obstruction syndrome?
meconium ileus equivalent
Which has surrounding membrane, omphalocele or gastrochisis?
When is physiologic gun herniation seen?
Pancreatic tumor in 1 yo
Pancreatic tumor in 6 yo
Pancreatic tumor in 15 yo
Hepatoblastoma is associated with what three things?
Elevated AFP, precocious puberty, Wilms
Large cystic hepatic mass with negative AFP in 0-3 yo
0-3 yo multiseptated hepatic mass with fibrous pseudocapsule
embryonal undifferentiated sarcoma
Type 1 choledochal cyst=
focal dilation of CBD, most common
Type 2 choledochal cyst=
diverticulum of bile duct
Type 3 choledochal cyst=
Type 4 choledochal cyst=
intra and extrahepatic
Type 5 choledochal cyst=
carolis- intrahepatic only
What is Alagille syndrome?
hereditary cholestasis due to absent intrahepatic bile ducts, peripheral pulmonary stenosis
What is the triangular cord sign?
bright hand of tissue near branching of CBD, seen in biliary atresia
Horseshoe kidney is associated with what type of cancer?
What are the three characteristics of Prune belly?/Eagle Barrett Syndrome?
bad abs, hydrouteronephrosis, cryptorchidism
What is the weigert meyer rule?
in duplicated renal system- upper pole inserts inferior medially, inferior pole inserts superior laterally. upper gets obstructed, inferior gets reflux
What are the five grades of VUR
1: reflux halfway up ureter
2: reflux into non dilated kidney
3: blunted calyces
4: mildly tortuous
5: very tortuous
Two kidney tumors in neonate
Nephroblastomatosis, mesoblastic nephroma
4 renal tumors around age 4
wilms + variants, lymphoma, multilocular cystic nephroma
2 renal tumors in teenagers
Which type of Wilms mets to bone?
What is the follow up for nephroblastomatosis?
US q 3 months until age 7-8
What is a key feature of mesoblastic nephroma?
involves the renal sinus
What are three things seen in Beckwith Wiedemann?
Wilms, omphalocele, hepatoblastoma
Protrude into renal pelvis=
multilocular cystic nephroma
heterogeneous testicular mass in <2 yo w/ elevated AFP=
yolk sac tumor
highly aggressive highly vascular testicular tumor seen in 2nd decade
bilateral burnt out testicular tumors
sertoli cell tumors
testicular sertoli cell tumors are associated with what syndrome?
four types of sacrococcygeal teratoma
Type 1: extra pelvic
2: barely pelvic, not abdominal
3: some abdominal
4: inside abdomen---malignant!
What is a characteristic of a Milch II lateral condylar fracture?
passes through capitello trochlear groove and is unstable
greater trochanter avulsion=
ischial tuberosity avulsion=
lesser trochanter avulsion=
pediatric hot mandible on bone scan=
What is the pattern of physiologic growth of the newborn?
periostitis of diaphysis, femur before tibia at about 3-6mo of age
narrowing of interpedicular distance=
Three features of thanatophoric dwarf=
flat vertebra, telephone receiver femurs, cloverleaf skull
bell shape thorax with short ribs=
jeune/aspyxiating thoracic dystrophy
dwarf with multiple fingers=
ellis van crevald
What is pyknodysostosis?
osteopetrosis in a dwarf with wide angled jaw
Fibula is longer than the tibia=
congenital fusion of the cervical spine with sprengel deformity=
mid vertebral body beaking
Inferior vertebral body beaking
Wide metcarpal bones with proximal tapering=
anterior tibial bowing w/ pseudoarthrosis of the fibula
Where are the four MSK signs see in Gauchers?
AVN femoral heads, H shaped vertebrae, bone infarcts, erlenmeyer flask shaped femurs
kinky hair syndrome
What are the kocher criteria?
Septic arthritis, need 3/4 positive
inability to walk
elevated ESR/ CRP
rachitic rosary, fraying/cupping of physeal margin
rickets in newborn
white sclerotic metaphyseal band
lucent metaphyseal band 4 ddx
Eye ball calc <3yo (3)
Eye ball calc >3 yo
toxo, retinal astrocytoma