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Flashcards in Pediatric Deck (121):
1

What is the infectious etiology of croup?

parainfluenza

2

What is the infectious etiology of epiglottitis?

h. influenza

3

What is the infecitous etiology of exudative tracheitis?

Staph Aureus

4

What syndrome are subglottic hemangiomas associated with and what does it stand for?

PHACES

Posterior fossa/dandy walker
hemangiomas
arterial anomalies
coarctation
eye abnormalities
subglottic hemangiomas

5

What cancer may develop in a thyroglossal duct cyst?

papillary

6

What anatomy surrounds a 2nd branchial cleft cyst?

posterior and lateral to submandibular gland, lateral to carotid space, anterior to SCM

7

Which type of pediatric hemangioma shows up at 6 months?

infantile

8

What two syndromes and congenital abnormality is cystic hygroma associated with?

Turners, Downs, coarc

9

What is the most common extra occular orbital malignancy in kids?

rhabdomyosarcoma

10

What is the most common pediatric benign orbital mass?

dermoid

11

high volumes + perihilar streaky= (2)

meconium aspiration
non GB neonatal pneumonia

12

Not high (low or normal) volumes + granular (2)

SSD
group B pneumonia

13

What are the lung findings in meconium aspiration? (2)

ropy asymmetric densities, hyperinflation

14

What are the lung findings in transient tachypnea of the newborn? (2)

coarse interstitial markings, fluid in fissures

15

What is the time course of TTN?

peaks at 1 day, resolved by day 3

16

What are the pulmonary findings of surfactant deficiency? (2)

low volumes with bilateral granular opacities

17

What excludes SDD?

normal plain film at 6 hours post delivery

18

High lung volumes in neonates? (3)

meconium aspiration, transient tachypnea, non BH pneumonia

19

Low lung volumes in neonates? (2)

surfactant deficiency (no effusion), beta hemolytic pneumonia (effusion)

20

What does chronic lung disease look like in infant?

band like opacities, coarse reticular opacities, hyper aeration

21

At what age is PIE seen?

1st week

22

At what age is CLD seen?

after 3-4 weeks

23

Where is bronchopulmonary sequestration most common and at what age does it present?

LLL, adolescence

24

Which lobe is CLE most common in?

LUL

25

What part of the lungs are affected in CF?

upper lobe

26

What part of the lungs are affected in primary cilia dyskinesia?

lower lobe

27

UAC positioning?

High t8-t10 or low L3-L5

28

Anterior mediastinal mass that straddles the midline?

seminoma

29

Pediatric posterior mediastinal mass differential (5)

neuroblastoma, ewing, askin, neuroenteric cyst, extramedullary hematopoiesis

30

Age in pleuropulmonary blastoma?

<2

31

Age in Askin Tumor

>10

32

What is the most common type of esophageal atresia/fistula?

N type

33

What is VACTERL?

Vertebral anomalies, anal, cardiac, TE, fistula, renal, limb. 3+ of above

34

What variant goes between esophagus and trachea?

pulmonary sling

35

What is the most common symptomatic vascular ring anomaly?

double aortic arch

36

What is the most common aortic arch anomaly?

Left arch with aberrant right subclavian artery

37

What are the five causes of high neonatal obstruction?

midgut volvulus/malrotation, duodenal atresia, duodenal web, annular pancreas, jejunal atresia

38

What are the five causes of low neonatal obstruction?

Hirschsprung, meconium plug, ileal atresia, meconium ileus, anal/colonic atresia

39

What causes jejunal atresia?

vascular insult

40

corkscrew duodenum=

midgut volvulus

41

Which type of gastric volvulus occurs in kids and what is it?

mesenteroaxial, antrum flips near GE junction can cause ischemia

42

Wind sock =

duodenal web in older kids

43

What is meconium plug syndrome?

small left colon; NOT associated with CF

44

rectum smaller than sigmoid=

hirschsprung

45

rectum with sawtooth pattern-

hirschsprung

46

Looks like microcolon but with involvement of the terminal ileum

total colonic aganglionosis

47

Age of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

2-12 weeks

48

What is the criteria for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis?

4mm, 14mm

49

What should pressure not exceed in reducing HPS?

120mmHg

50

What target size needs air enema in HPS?

over 2.5cm

51

What is distal intestinal obstruction syndrome?

meconium ileus equivalent

52

Which has surrounding membrane, omphalocele or gastrochisis?

omphalocele

53

When is physiologic gun herniation seen?

6-8 weeks

54

Pancreatic tumor in 1 yo

pancreatoblastoma

55

Pancreatic tumor in 6 yo

adenocarcinoma

56

Pancreatic tumor in 15 yo

SPEN

57

Hepatoblastoma is associated with what three things?

Elevated AFP, precocious puberty, Wilms

58

Large cystic hepatic mass with negative AFP in 0-3 yo

mesenchymal hamartoma

59

0-3 yo multiseptated hepatic mass with fibrous pseudocapsule

embryonal undifferentiated sarcoma

60

Type 1 choledochal cyst=

focal dilation of CBD, most common

61

Type 2 choledochal cyst=

diverticulum of bile duct

62

Type 3 choledochal cyst=

choledochocele

63

Type 4 choledochal cyst=

intra and extrahepatic

64

Type 5 choledochal cyst=

carolis- intrahepatic only

65

What is Alagille syndrome?

hereditary cholestasis due to absent intrahepatic bile ducts, peripheral pulmonary stenosis

66

What is the triangular cord sign?

bright hand of tissue near branching of CBD, seen in biliary atresia

67

Horseshoe kidney is associated with what type of cancer?

renal carcinoid

68

What are the three characteristics of Prune belly?/Eagle Barrett Syndrome?

bad abs, hydrouteronephrosis, cryptorchidism

69

What is the weigert meyer rule?

in duplicated renal system- upper pole inserts inferior medially, inferior pole inserts superior laterally. upper gets obstructed, inferior gets reflux

70

What are the five grades of VUR

1: reflux halfway up ureter
2: reflux into non dilated kidney
3: blunted calyces
4: mildly tortuous
5: very tortuous

71

Two kidney tumors in neonate

Nephroblastomatosis, mesoblastic nephroma

72

4 renal tumors around age 4

wilms + variants, lymphoma, multilocular cystic nephroma

73

2 renal tumors in teenagers

RCC, lymphoma

74

Which type of Wilms mets to bone?

clear cell

75

What is the follow up for nephroblastomatosis?

US q 3 months until age 7-8

76

What is a key feature of mesoblastic nephroma?

involves the renal sinus

77

What are three things seen in Beckwith Wiedemann?

Wilms, omphalocele, hepatoblastoma

78

Protrude into renal pelvis=

multilocular cystic nephroma

79

heterogeneous testicular mass in <2 yo w/ elevated AFP=

yolk sac tumor

80

highly aggressive highly vascular testicular tumor seen in 2nd decade

choriocarcinoma

81

bilateral burnt out testicular tumors

sertoli cell tumors

82

testicular sertoli cell tumors are associated with what syndrome?

Peurtz Jegher

83

four types of sacrococcygeal teratoma

Type 1: extra pelvic
2: barely pelvic, not abdominal
3: some abdominal
4: inside abdomen---malignant!

84

What is a characteristic of a Milch II lateral condylar fracture?

passes through capitello trochlear groove and is unstable

85

iliac avulsion

abdominal muscles

86

asis avulsion=

sartorius

87

aiis avulsion=

rectus femoris

88

greater trochanter avulsion=

gluteal muscles

89

symphysis avulsion=

adductor group

90

ischial tuberosity avulsion=

hamstrings

91

lesser trochanter avulsion=

illiopsoas

92

celery stalk=

rubella

93

wimberger sign-

syphyllis

94

pediatric hot mandible on bone scan=

caffey disease

95

What is the pattern of physiologic growth of the newborn?

periostitis of diaphysis, femur before tibia at about 3-6mo of age

96

narrowing of interpedicular distance=

achondroplasia

97

Three features of thanatophoric dwarf=

flat vertebra, telephone receiver femurs, cloverleaf skull

98

bell shape thorax with short ribs=

jeune/aspyxiating thoracic dystrophy

99

dwarf with multiple fingers=

ellis van crevald

100

What is pyknodysostosis?

osteopetrosis in a dwarf with wide angled jaw

101

Fibula is longer than the tibia=

Osteogenesis imperfecta

102

congenital fusion of the cervical spine with sprengel deformity=

klippel feil

103

mid vertebral body beaking

Morquio

104

Inferior vertebral body beaking

Hurlers

105

Wide metcarpal bones with proximal tapering=

hurlers/morquio/hunters

106

anterior tibial bowing w/ pseudoarthrosis of the fibula

NF 1

107

Where are the four MSK signs see in Gauchers?

AVN femoral heads, H shaped vertebrae, bone infarcts, erlenmeyer flask shaped femurs

108

PORK=CHop

wormian bones

pyknodysotosis
osteogenesis imperfecta
rickets
kinky hair syndrome
cleidocranial dysostosis
hajdu cheney

109

What are the kocher criteria?

Septic arthritis, need 3/4 positive
fever
inability to walk
elevated ESR/ CRP
WBC >12k

110

rachitic rosary, fraying/cupping of physeal margin

rickets

111

rickets in newborn

hypophosphatasia

112

scorbutic rosary

scurvy

113

white sclerotic metaphyseal band

lead poisoning

114

lucent metaphyseal band 4 ddx

leukemia
TORCH
neuroblastoma mets
rickets/scurvy

115

Eye ball calc <3yo (3)

retinoblastoma
CMV
colobomatous

116

Eye ball calc >3 yo

toxo, retinal astrocytoma

117

dolichocephaly

sagital

118

trigonocephaly

metopic

119

brachycephaly

coronal

120

plagiocephaly

unilateral lambdoid

121

bilateral lambdoid

turricephaly