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Flashcards in Pediatric Development Deck (21):

Stage 1 Trust vs. mistrust

-between a birth and 18 mos
-success= feels safe and secure
-failure=fear and belief that world is inconsistent and unpredictable
-learn through sensations and motor action


Stage 2 autonomy vs shame/doubt

-develop greater sense of personal control
-toilet training
-gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing
-age 2-3 y.o


stage 3 initiative vs. guilt

-preschool years, assert power and control over the world through directing play
-success=feel capable and able to lead others
-failure=sense of guilt, self doubt, lack of initiative


stage 4 industry vs. inferiority

-age 6-11
-cope with new social and academic commands
-success=sense of competence
-failure=feelings of inferiority


fine motor dev 2 mos

tracks to midline, hands to midline


gross motor dev 2 mos

holds head steady briefly, raises head to 45 degrees prone.


personal/social dev 2 mos

coos and gurgles


well child exam 2 mos

full PE, including pulse oximetry for cardiac screening (95% or better) infant reflexes


Assessment 2 mos

growth and dev, need for immunizations, problem oriented


anticipatory guidance 2 mos

rear facing car seat in back of car, 20-30 oz milk/day, feedings every 2-3 hours, colic reading infant cues, comforting interactions, family health and supports


FM 4 mos

track 180 degrees, holds rattle, resists letting go


GM 4 mos

holds head 90 degrees and raises body when prone, rolls front to bck, may sit with support


PS 4 mos

knows mother and may cry to show displeasure, recognizes prep for feeding, may dev self-soothing behaviors, stranger awareness, squeals coos and gurgles.


observed red flags parent/child interaction 4 mos

parent: minimal, disinterested, or mechanical interaction with infant, extremes of behavior (anxiety, overprotectedness, unrealistic expectations)
infant:uninterested in parents or surroundings, withdrawn, insistent on being held, hard to console


anticipatory guidance 4 mos

back to sleep, prone to play, assess readiness for solid foods, avoid bottle proppings due to risk of baby bottle tooth decay and choking, avoid bottle as sleep aid.


by the end of their first month, most babies:

-make jerky, quivering arm movements
-bring hands near face
-move head from side to side while lying on stomach
-focus on objects 8-12 inches away
-prefer human faces over other shapes
-prefer black and white or high contrast patterns
-hear very well
-recognize some sounds, including parent's voice


by the end of their sixth month, most babies:

-roll over both ways (tummy to back, back to tummy)
-sit up
-reach for object with hand
-transfer objects from one hand to another
-develop full color vision and mature distance vision
-use voice to express joy and displeasure
-respond to own name
-babble chains of consanants (babababa)
-distinguish emotions by tone of voice
-explore objects with hands and mouth
-enjoy playing peek a boo
-show an interest in mirror images


by first birthday, most babies:

-sit without assistance
-pull self up to stand
-walk holding onto furniture and possibly a few steps without support
-use pincer grasp
-say dada and mama
-try to imitate words
-responds to no and simple verbal requests
-use simple gestures, such as shaking head no and waving bye bye
-explore objects in many ways
-begin to use objects correctly


by second birthday, most babies:

-walk alone
-carry large toy or several toys while walking
-begin to run
-kick a ball
-walk up and down stairs
-scribble with crayon
-say several single words
-use simple phrases
-use 2-4 word sentences
-follow simple instructions
-begin to play make believe
-show growing independence


by third birthday, most babies

-hop and stand on one foot up to five seconds
-goes upstairs and downsairs without support
-uses scissors
-understands concepts of same and different
-speaks in sentences of 5-6 words
-correctly name colors
-begins to have clearer sense of time
-follows three part commands
-cooperates with other children
-dresses and undresses
-negotiates solutions to conflicts
-more independent


by fifth birthday, most children

-may be able to skip
-prints some letters
-dresses and undresses without assistance
-uses fork, spoon, and sometimes table knife
-usually cares for own toilet needs
-speaks sentences of more than 5 words
-uses future tense
-says name and address
-better understands concept of time
-more likely to agree to rules
-likes to sing, dance, and act
-shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor byself
-aware of sexuality