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Flashcards in Pediatrics Deck (61):
1

blue/gray macules on presacral back/posterior thighs

Mongolian spots

2

firm, yellow-white papules/pustules w/ erythematous base, which peak on second day of life

erythema toxicum

3

permanent, unilateral vascular malformation on head and neck

port wine stain (nevus flammeus)

4

red, sharply demarcated, raised lesions appearing in first 2 months, rapidly expanding, then involuting by age 5-9 years

hemangioma

5

preauricular tags/pits

preauricular tags/pits

6

defect in iris

coloboma of iris

7

absence of iris

aniridia

8

mass lateral to midline

branchial cleft cyst

9

mass in MIDLINE that moves with swallowing or tongue protrusion

thyroglossal duct cyst

10

GI tract protrusion through umbilicus WITH SAC

omphalocele

11

abdominal defect lateral to midline WITHOUT SAC

gastroschisis

12

congenital weakness where vessels of fetal and infant umbilical cord exited through the rectus abdominis muscle

umbilical hernia

13

scrotal swelling, transillumination

hydrocele

14

unilateral absence of testes in scrotal sac

undescended testes

15

urethral opening on VENTRAL surface

hypospadias

16

urethral opening on DORSAL surface

epispadias

17

inguinal bulge or reducible scrotal swelling

inguinal hernia (usually INdirect)

18

- low Apgar scores
- blood stools
- apnea
- lethargy
- abdominal wall erythema and distention

necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)

19

failure to pass meconium

Hirschsprung disease

20

hydrocephalus w/ generalized intracranial calcifications and chorioretinitis

toxoplasmosis

21

- cataracts, deafness, and heart defects
- blueberry muffin spots (extramedullary hematopoiesis)

rubella

22

- microcephaly w/ periventricular calcifications
- petechiae w/ thrombocytopenia

CMV

23

- first week: PNA/shock
- second week: skin vesicles, keratoconjunctivitis
- third week: acute meningoencephalitis

herpes

24

osteochondritis and periostitis; desquamating skin rash of palms and soles, snuffles (mucopurulent rhinitis)

syphilis

25

- neonatal: PNA
- congenital: limb hypoplasia, cutaneous scars, seizures, mental retardation

varicella

26

- drug teratogenesis

respiratory, CNS depression

- anesthetics
- barbiturates

27

- drug teratogenesis

respiratory depression

magnesium sulfate

28

- drug teratogenesis

vitamin K deficiency

phenobarbital

29

- drug teratogenesis

displaces bilirubin from albumin

sulfonamides

30

- drug teratogenesis

premature closure of ductus arteriosus

NSAID's

31

- drug teratogenesis

craniofacial abnormalities

ACEI's

32

- drug teratogenesis

- facial and ear anomalies
- congenital heart disease

isotretinoin

33

- drug teratogenesis

- hypoplastic nails
- typical facies
- IUGR

phenytoin

34

- drug teratogenesis

vaginal adenocarcinoma

diethylstilbestrol (DES)

35

- drug teratogenesis

- enamel hypoplasia
- discolored teeth

tetracycline

36

- drug teratogenesis

Ebstein's anomaly

lithium

37

- drug teratogenesis

facial dysmorphism and chondrodysplasia

warfarin

38

- drug teratogenesis

- mental retardation
- NTD's

- valproate
- carbamazepine

39

- upward slanting palpebral fissures
- speckling of iris (Brushfield spots)
- inner epicanthal folds
- small stature
- late fontanel closure
- mental retardation

trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)

40

- low-set, malformed ears
- microcephaly
- micrognathia
- clenched hand (index over 3rd; 5th over 4th)
- rocker bottom feet and hammer toe
- omphalocele

trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome)

41

- defect of midface, eye, and forebrain development
- holoprosencephaly
- microcephaly
- microphthalmia
- cleft lip/palate

trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome)

42

- Wilms
- Aniridia
- GU anomalies
- mental Retardation

WAGR syndrome

43

- low IQ
- behavioral problems
- slim w/ long limbs
- gynecomastia

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

44

- small-stature female
- gonadal dysgenesis
- low IQ
- congenital lymphedema
- webbed posterior neck
- broad chest
- wide-spaced nipples

Turner syndrome (XO)

45

multiorgan enlargement:

- macrosomia
- macroglossia
- pancreatic beta cell hyperplasia (hypoglycemia)
- large kidneys
- neonatal polycythemia

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

46

- obesity
- mental retardation
- binge eating
- small genitalia

Prader-Willi syndrome

47

- mental retardation
- inappropriate laughter
- absent speech or less than 6 words
- ataxia and jerky arm movements resembling a puppet gait
- recurrent seizures

Angelman syndrome

48

harsh holosystolic murmur over LLSB

VSD

49

loud S1, wide FIXED SPLITTING of S2

ASD

50

- wide pulse pressure
- bounding arterial pulses
- "machinery" to-and-fro murmur
- maternal rubella infection

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

51

EARLY systolic ejection CLICK at apex of LSB

aortic stenosis

52

BP higher in arms than legs

coarctation of aorta

53

most common CHD BEYOND infancy

tetralogy of Fallot

54

- most common cyanotic lesion presenting in the IMMEDIATE newborn period

transposition of great vessels (arteries)

55

- nonbilious projectile vomiting typically in first 6 weeks of life
- firm, mobile, 1-inch mass palpated in epigastrum

pyloric stenosis

56

most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)

21-hydroxylase deficiency

57

- decreased production of cortisol
- increased ACTH
- adrenal hyperplasia
- shunting to androgen synthesis
- masculinization of external genitalia in females

21-hydroxylase deficiency

58

best INITIAL test for 21-hydroxylase deficiency

increased 17-OH progesterone

59

definitive diagnostic test for 21-hydroxylase deficiency

17-OH progesterone before and after an intravenous bolus of ACTH

60

treatment for lead poisoning when blood lead level is more than 15mcg/dL

refer to department of health

61

treatment for lead poisoning when blood lead level is more than 45mcg/dL

chelation