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Flashcards in Peds Immunizations Deck (22)
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1

What is herd immunity?

-the ability of a community to resist epidemic dz.

Not every persons in a population has to be immunized in order for a community to be resistant to an epidemic dz.

Unvaccinated individuals are indirectly protected by vaccinated individuals.

2

What are the two types of immunization?
-how long until immunity achieved?
-provides long or short term immunity?

-active: when either live, toxoid, or killed Ag is administered and the body makes its own abys against it.
--meaningful immunity is not achieved until 2-4weeks post vaccination. Provides long term immunity.

Passive:
-administration of preformed abys (immunglobulins). Results in immediate immunity & is short term.

3

Give 2 examples of times where passive immunity is used.

Mother HBsAg +, hepatitis B immune globulin is given within 12hrs of birth. (they also get active immunity too, hep B vaccine)

Palivizumab is a RSV immune globulin that is administered to children who are at risk for severe RSV.

4

What are the 4 live vaccines? Who can we not give live vaccines to?

MMR, Varicella, Zoster (shingles), Nasal-spray flu vaccine, (rotavirus?)

Cannot give live vaccines to infants younger than 12mos and immunocompromised patients (pregnant, older individuals, poor controlled DM, any chronic dz)

5

What are the common side effects of most vaccines?

-fever
-local rxn at site of injection (redness, hematoma)

*may give tylenol after vaccine for pain and fever.

6

Serum Sickness-Like Rxn

-pathogenesis poorly understood, though pt experiences a non-immune complex mediated rxn to the immunization causing them to feel under the weather.

7

What are the true vaccine CI?

-previous anaphylactic rxn to a vaccine- avoid revaccination

-hx of anaphylaxis to eggs of egg protein: avoid measles, mumps, influenza, yellow-fever

-previous anaphylaxis rxn to neomycin or streptomycin: avoid MMR

-Hx of severe systemic rxn to the choelra, typhoid or plague vaccine: avoid revaccination of these.

-adults who are immunocompromised as a result of dz or its tx: avoild live vurses

-household members of immunocompromised pts:avoid oral polio

-pregnant women- avoid all live viruses

8

T/F: it is NOT a CI to administer a vaccine in a patient with MILD resp., intestinal, or flu-like illness, low-grade fever, or hx of recent illness.

T/F: mild/moderate local rxn (tender, red, swelling @ injection site) are NOT a CI to subsequent vaccination?

True & True.

9

Hepatitis B
-vaccine schedule

schedule:
-birth (w/in 12hrs if
HBsAg +, also get hep B immunoglobulin)
-2mo
-4-6mo

10

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
-aka
-leading cause of what infections worldwide?
-Vaccine Schedule

aka: PCV13 or Prevnar13

leading cause of pneumonia worldwide and a principal cause of sepsis and meningitis under that age of 2.
Schedule:
-2mo
-4mo
-6mo
Booster 12-15mo

11

Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
-leading cause of which childhood infections?
-not routinely given to children age 5 and older, why?
-vaccine schedule

was leading cause of childhood meningitis, pneumonia, epiglottitis

-Not given to children 5yrs and older b/c they have probably already had it or been exposed to it and have developed immunity to it.

Schedule:
-2mo
-4mo
-6mo
Booster 15mo

12

Polio Vaccine (IPV)
-vaccine schedule

Schedule:
-2mo
-4mo
-6mo
-4-6years

13

DTaP Vaccine
-vaccine schedule
-

Schedule:
-2mo
-4mo
-6mo
-15mo
-4-6 years
*booster at 11-12years if 5 years since last dose
*every ten years thereafter.

14

Rotavirus Vaccine
-aka
-administration route
-vaccine schedule
-what happens if you miss the vaccine window ?
-associated with increased risk of ?

aka: rotateq(3doses), rotarix (2 dose only)

PO administration

Vaccine Schedule:
-2mo
-4mo
-6mo (only for rotateq)

if missed vaccine window dont bother getting it, they've probably already had the dz.

Increased risk of intussesception

15

Influenza Vaccine
-vaccine schedule
-how long to develop immunity?
-types

Schedule:
-annually ages 6mo to 18years
*children 6 mo to 8 years require 2 doses (separated by at least 4 wks) for 1st time vaccine.

-2wks to develop immunity

Types:
-intranasal (live)
-IM

16

Hep A Vaccine:
-vaccine schedule

Schedule:
-12mo (cannot give less than 1 yr)
-24mo

17

MMR Vaccine
-vaccine schedule

Schedule:
-12mo (MUST be exactly 12 mo)
-4-6years

18

Varicella Vaccine
-aka
-vaccine schedule

aka: varivax

Schedule:
-12-15mo
-4-6years

19

Meningococcal Vaccine
-aka
-vaccine schedule

aka:
-MCV4, Menactra

Schedule:
-11-12years
*Booster 16years

20

HPV Vaccine
-aka
-vaccine schedule

aka: gardasil

Schedule:
-begin at ages 11-12years, as early as 9 years.
--3 doses; O mo, 2 mo, 6mo apart.

21

What are the Combo vaccines ?

DTaP, DT, Tdap, Td

MMR

MMRV (proquad)

Pediarix (DTaP + Hep B + IPV) -2,4,6mo

Twinrix (Hep A + Hep B) only pts greater than 18yrs

Comvax (Hib + Hep B)

TriHIBit (DTaP + Hib) *only used as 4th dose.

22

Complete Vaccine Schedule

Birth: Hep B

2mo: PCV13, Hib, rotavirus, [DTaP, Hep B, IPV (Pediarix)]

4mo: PCV13, Hib, rotavirus, [DTaP, Hep B, IPV (Pediarix)]

6mo: PCV13, Hib, rotavirus, [DTaP, Hep B, IPV (Pediarix)], + INFLUENZA

12mo: PCV 13, Hib, Hep A

15mo: DTaP, MMR, varicella

24mo: Hep A

4-6years: DTaP, IPV, MMR, Varicella

12 years: Tdap, HPV, Meningococcal

16-18yrs: meningococcal