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Flashcards in Peds NEURO 1 - PE Deck (40)
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1

Sx seen in 1st few months & DO NOT CHANGE over time

Congenital abnormalities or brain injury (cerebral palsy)

What type of sx? 

STATIC

2

Sx due to degenerative disease or neoplasm

What type of sx? 

Progressive

3

Epileptic or migraine syndromes

What type of sx? 

INTERMITTENT

4

Bursts of symptoms followed by partial recovery

Vascular, demyelinating d/o

What type of Sx? 

SALTATORY

5

What 6 components of the PE do you perform for pt with neuro sx? 

  1. Hair, skin, teeth, nails
  2. Head circumference
  3. Fontanelles
  4. Ears, eyes
  5. Hands, feet
  6. Midline defects

"Has Harry Found Every Happy Moment?"

6

PE: Hair, skin, teeth, nails

_______&_______ have same embryonic origin

Brain & Skin have same embryonic origin

7

What do you monitor for during a head circumference check? 

microcephaly/macrocephaly

8

T/F: You plot head circumference on a growth curve

TRUE

9

What does an accelerating pattern on a growth curve indicate? 

possible hydrocephalus

10

What does a decelerating pattern on a growth curve for head circumference indicate? 

possible degenerative neurologic d/o

11

Define craniosynostosis

abnormal shape of the skull due to premature suture closure

12

Is this a normal or abnormal fonatanelle? 

+/- slightly depressed and pulsatile 

may slightly bulge when crying, vomiting

NORMAL 

13

Is this a normal or abnormal fonatanelle? Where would you see this PE finding? 

contstant bulging 

infection or inc. ICP 

14

Age of anterior and posterior fontanelle closure?

anterior: 2 yrs

posterior: 2 mos

15

What are the following cranial nerves responsible for? 

CN I

CN II

CN I: smell

CN II: pupillary light reflex, visual acuity 

 

**ALWAYS CHECK RED REFLEX**

WILL BE ON TEST

16

What are the following cranial nerves responsible for? 

CN III, IV, VI (3, 4, 6)

 

Following objects, fixating, oculocephalic reflex, EOMs

17

CN V? 

 

 

Sucking/swallowing, light touch

18

CN VII?

 

 

Observe face at rest, crying/blinking

19

CN VIII

HEARING

20

CN IX, X

gag reflex, sucking, salivation

21

CN XI

posture, spontaneous movement

22

CN XII 

tongue movement

23

What 2 things should you look for on the hands during PE? 

single crease in down syndrome

polydactyly

24

What 4 primitive reflexes must be present in normal child development? 

 

Moro: startle reflex

Grasp: put finger in hand, will grasp around finger

Rooting: tactile stimulation around mouth- will search for stimulus

Tonic neck

"My grandchild runs too" 

25

When do primitive reflexes usually disappear? 

4-6 mos = normal maturation

 

26

Asymmetry of primitive reflexes may indicate What 2 possibilities? 

focal brain or PNS lesions

27

Origination & termination of upper motor neurons

Origin: motor region of cerebral cortex or brainstem 

Termination: brainstem & spinal cord

28

Origination & termination of lower motor neurons

Origin: brainstem & spinal cord 

Termination: skeletal muscle fibers

29

Flaccid paralysis

Decreased tone

Absent DTRs

Profound muscle atrophy

Fasciculations present

May have sensory disturbances

Sx of lower or upper motor lesion?

Lower motor neuron lesion

30

Spastic paralysis

•Increased tone

Increased DTRs/+Babinski (in older children, normal in infants); usually with clonus

Minimal muscle atrophy/strength loss

Fasciculations absent

May have sensory disturbances

Sx of lower or upper motor lesion?

Upper motor neuron lesion