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2020 MHS Anatomy unit 2 > pelvic walls and cavities 1 of 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in pelvic walls and cavities 1 of 2 Deck (66)
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1

what forms the pelvis?

pelvis is part of the trunk with in the girdle formed by 2 hip bones, divided by a plevic brim. 

  1. greater pelvis/ false pelvis
    1. inferior abdomen
  2. lesser pelvis/ true pelvis
    1. encloses pelvic cavity
    2. contains
      1. urinary elements
      2. gastrointestinal and reproductive system
    3. inlet(brim) and outlet

2

what divides the pelvis?

pelvic brim

 

3

differentiate between the pelivis and the perinuem

  1. pelvis
    1. False/greater pelvis
      1. inferior abdomen
    2. true/lesser pelvis
      1. encloses pelvic cavity containing elements of the 
        1. urinary, gastrointestinal and reproductive system
      2. inlet adn outlet
  2. perineum
    1. area between the thighs, inferior to floor of the pelvic cavity
    2. bounded by pelvic outlet
    3. contains
      1. ​perineal mucles  and glands
      2. anal canal
      3. lower vagina
      4. portion of the urethra
      5. external genitalia

4

what lies inferior to the floow of the pelvic cavity?

perineum

5

what is the perineum bound by?

pelvic outlet

6

what does the green line represent?

the boundry between the pelvis and perineum

7

what are the roles of the bony pelvis? what are the borders?

roles in relation to pelvis and perineum

  1. protect and support viscera
  2. attachment for muscles, fascia and erecrile bodies of genitalia

 

borders

  1. 2 hip bones (os cozae, innominate bones)
  2. sacrum
  3. coccyx

8

what is the Os COxae composed of ?

  1. ilium
  2. ischium
  3. pubis

acetabulum- fusion of all three regions of the os coxae.

  • cavity forms the hip joint iwth head of femur
  • to become one bone between 16 & 18 years ols

9

which portions of the bony pelvis lie in the same axis?

Anterior supreior Iliac spine and the pubic symphysis lie in the same vertical plane

coccyx and the upper margin of pubic symphysis lie in the same horizontal plane

10

11

coccyx 

  1. how many vertebrae?
  2. articulate

coccyx

  1. 3-4 fused vertevrae
  2. articulate with sacrum (sacrococcygeal joint) via cornua
    1. two horns that project upward to the sacrum
    2. be sure to differentiate between the sacral and coccyx coruna

12

sacrum

  1. vertebrae?
  2. articulate
  3. canal?
  4. foramina?
  5. important super structures

  1. 5 fused vetebrae
    1. S1-S5
  2. articulate with
    1. L5
    2. saccral coruna and the coccyx coruna
  3. sacral canal and haitus:
    1. cauda equina
  4. anterior and posterior sacral foramina
    1. where anterior and posterior rami of sacral spinal nerves exit
  5. super structures to ID
    1. promontory-anterior part of the vetebral body that projects forward
    2. ala- wing like transverse processes on S1

13

  1. anterior part of the vetebral body that projects forward

promontory-anterior part of the vetebral body that projects forward

 

14

wing like transverse processes on S1

ala- wing like transverse processes on S1

15

describe the lumosacral joints. Types of joints? parts? support?

Lumbsacral joint= joint between sacrum and lumbar 5

  1. zygapophyseal joints (synovial)
    1. occurs beterrn adjacent and superior articular processes
  2. intervertebral disc between L5 and S1 (symphisis)
    1.  

supported by

  1. iliolumber ligaments 
    1. transverse process to the ilium
  2. lumbosacral ligaments
    1. transverse process to the sacrum

16

list the ligaments and their attatchment involved in the lumbosacral joints

  1. iliolumber ligaments 

    1. transverse process to the ilium

  2. lumbosacral ligaments

    1. transverse process to the sacrum

17

joint between the sacrum and ilium.

sacroliliac joint- two protions

  1. synovial potion
    1. iliac and sacral protion- articular surfaces
    2. anteriorsacroiliac ligament
  2. syndesmotic (fibrous) portion
    1. iliac and sacral tuberosities
    2. interosseous sacroiliac ligament (STRONGEST)

ligaments

  1. anterior sacro-iliac ligament
  2. interosseous sacro-iliac ligament
    1. STONGEST
  3. posterior sacro-iliac ligament

18

What the following structures belong to and are they synovial, syndesmostic, symphysis, fibrocartilagenous?

 

  1. zygopophyseal joint
  2. articular surface of iliac and sacral
  3. intervertebral disc between L5-S1
  4. interpubic disc
  5. iliac and sacral tuberosities

  1. lumbosacral joints- 2 joints
    1. zygopophyseal - SYNOVIAL
    2. inttervertebral disc between L5 and S1 - SYMPHYSIS
  2. sacroiliac joint- two portions to the joint
    1. articular surfaces-SYNOVIAL PORTION
    2. iliac and sacral tuberosities - SYNDESMOTIC (FIBROUS) PORTION
  3. pubic symphysis
    1. articular surfaceces on body of the pubic bone- FIBROCARTILAGENOUS JOINT
      1. interpubic disk-pad of fibrocartilage that joins the bones

19

describe the ligaments and joints involved with the pubic symphysis

  1. pubic symphysis
    1. interpubic disc- fibrocartilaginous structure that joins the articular surfaces on body of pubic bones
    2. ligaments
      1. superior
        1. superior pubic ligament
      2. inferior
        1. inferior pubic ligament

20

which ligament forms the greater sciatic foramen?

sacrospinous ligament

  1. attatches
    1. anterior surface of the sacrum 
    2. to ischial spine

21

what ligament generates the lesser sciatic foramen?

sacrotuberous ligament

  1. attaches 
    1. lateral margin of the sacrum
    2. to ishcial tuberosity

22

weight of the body causes rotation at what location? what stops the formation of lordosis?

weight of the body causes the inferior sarum to rotate superiorly att the sacro-iliac joint.

this tendency (lordosis) is opposed by ligaments: sacrospinous and sacrotuberous 

  1. ligaments prevent upward tiliting of sacrum

23

describe th border involved with the pelvic inlet

  1. sacral promontory
    1. S1
  2. sacral alae
  3. linea terminalis
    1. arcuate line
    2. pecten pubis aka:pectineal line
    3. pubic crest and pubic symphysis

24

describe the perimeter of the pelvic outlet 

pelvic outlet

  1. pubic symphisis
  2. ischiopubic rami
  3. ischial tuberosities
  4. sacrotuberous ligament
  5. coccyx

25

describe the following for malw and female

  1. greater pelvis
  2. lesser pelvis
  3. pelvic inlet
  4. pelvic outlet
  5. sacrum
  6. ischial spines
  7. pubic arch & subpubic angle

26

What causes the relaxation of the pelvic ligaments and increased joint mobility? What is the purpose of this?

the homrone relaxin

purpose: increase in pelvis diameter to facilitate childbirth but may cause back pain and pelvic pain

27

Back pain and pelvic pain associated with pregnancy is caused by what? explain the process

Rlaxin->relaxes the pelvic ligament and increases the mobility of joints.

this is all to increase the pelvic diamter and facilitate childbirth

28

what is measured as to consider the capacity for childbearing?

  1. Interspinous distance
    1. the narroest part of birth canal
    2. increases 10-15% in pregnancy
  2. ​lesser poelvis AP diameter
    1. narrowest fixed part of the birth canal
    2. determine possibility of vaginal birth

29

A woman can expect what to increase in distance for childbearing? What is the doctor measuring when they state the baby will not be able to be birthed vaginally?

  1. the interspinous distance increases 10-15% in pregnancy
  2. the child has exceeded the lesser pelvis AP diameter
    1. the narrowest part of the birth canal

30

what is the sacral hiatus used for during childbirth?

epidural anesthesia