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specify the location of the following

  1. bulbourethral glands
  2. seminal vesicles
  3. testes
  4. urethra
    1. prostatic
    2. membranous
    3. spongy (penile)
  5. prostate
  6. ductus (vas) deferens
  7. epididymis
  8. ejaculatory ducts

  1. perineum
    1. testes
    2. epididymus
    3. urethra
      1. membranous 
      2. spongy (penile)
    4. bulbourethral glands
  2. pelvis
    1. seminal vesicles
    2. ejeactularoy ducts
    3. prostate
    4. urethra
      1.  prostatic
  3. perinemu and pelvis
    1. ductus (vas) deferens


describe the contents of the testes

  1. location 
  2. function
  3. structure

  1. location
    1. scrotum- perineum
  2. function
    1. sperm production
      1. produced in the seminiferous tubules
    2. stored
      1. in the body of the epididymis
    3. transported by the vas deferens
      1. a continuation of tail of theepididymic
  3. structures
    1. tunica albuginea
      1. tough outer surface of testes
    2. tunica vaginalis
      1. peritoneal sac
        1. visceral layer covering testes epididymis
        2. parietal layer adjacent to internal spermatic fascia 
        3. cavity with small amount of liquid between parietal and visceral layers


tough outer surface of testes

tunica albuginea


where sperm are produced, stored, transported

  1. sperm
    1. made in the seminiferous tubules
    2. stored in the body of the epididymis
    3. transported by the vas deferens- conitnuation of epididymis


describe the embryonic descent of testes

  1. origination, what is carried

  1. testes descend from the posterior abdominal wall through the inguinal canal into the scrotum
  2. carry with them vessels, nerves, vas deferens found in the spermatic cord
  3. testes and spermatic cord acquire coverins from inguinal canal
  4. Processes vaginalis (peritoneum) close off to become the tunica vaginalis


how does the tunica vaginalis form?

processes vaginalis (peritoneum) closes off to become the tunica vaginalis


list the contents of the spermatic cord-9 total

  1. ductus deferens
  2. artery to ductus deferens
  3. testicular artery
  4. pampiniform plexus -> testicular vein
  5. lymphatic vessels
  6. autonomic nerves
  7. remnants of processus vaginalis
  8. cremasteric artery
  9. genital branch of genitofemoral nere
    1. motor component of cremaster reflex


motor component of cremaster reflex

genitofemoral nerve


list the three coverings of the spermatic cord, respectivly, and the origin of said layer

  1. internal spermatic fascia
    1. transversalis fascia
  2. cremaster muscles and fascia
    1. interal obliqu
  3. external spermatic fascia
    1. external oblique aponeurosis


describe the cremasteric reflex

stimulation to the GSA fibers of the femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve and ilioinguinal nerve, stimulates the activation of GSE fibers of genital branch of genitofemoral nerve->contraction of cremaster muscle that pulls up the ipsilateral testes

  1. GSA fibers of femoral branch of gentiofemoral nerve and iliolinguinal nerve
  2. GSE fibers of genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
  3. response is contraction of cremaster muscle


describe the following of the spermatic cord

  1. vessels
  2. lymphatic
  3. nerve


  1. vessels
    1. arterial
      1. testicular artery
      2. ductus deferens artery
    2. venous drainage
      1. testicular vein 
        1. receives the blood from the pampiniform plexus of veins
  2. lymphatics
    1. lateral aortic nodes
      1. in abdominal cavity
      2. route for testicular cancer to spread to the abdomen
  3. nerve
    1. sympathetic
      1. GVE 
        1. for sperm transport and vasoconstriction
      2. GVA
        1. afferent sensory fibers
      3. GSE
        1. genitofemoral nerve to cremaster muscles of cord


accumulation of serous fluid or blood with in the cavity of the tunica vaginalis

Hydrocele and hematocele of testis


What layer acculumates fluids in the following cases of hydrocele and hematocele

hydrocele and hematocele of testis

  1. accumulation of serous fluid or blood  within cavity of tunica vaginalis



sperm-filled cyst near the head of the epididymis; is usually asymptomatc


sperm filled cyst near the head of the epididymis

spermatocelel- ususally asymptomatic


varicocoele-of the spermatic cord

elongation and dilation of the pampiniform plexus of veins (bag of worms)


elongation and dilation of the pampiniform plexus of veins. appears as bag of worms

varicocoele- of the spermatic cord


passes through the inguinal canal, enters the abdominal cavity and courses posterior to the urinary bladder.

forms a specific ampulla at the distal end

Vas Deferens

  1. passes through the inguinal canal, enters the abdominal cavity and courses posterior to the urinary bladder
  2. at distal end form the AMPULLA OF THE DUCTUS DEFERENS
  3. Transmits sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct


describe the following for the Vas Deferens

  1. function
  2. location (route)


vas deferens

  1. function
    1. transmits sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
  2. route
    1. epididymis
    2. through inguinal canal
      1. enters abdominal cavity
    3. passes posterior to the urinary bladder
    4. form ampulla of the ductus deferens, towards the prostate
    5. deferent duct (ductus deferens) merges with the seminal vesicle to generate the ejaculaory duct as it connects to the urethra


describe th following for seminal vesicles

  1. function
  2. structure

seminal vesicles

  1. function
    1. secrete seminal fluid
      1. contributes a thick, alkaline fluid containing fructose
        1. frustose is essential to spermatozoa
  2. structure
    1. 2 tortuous coiled tubes that merge with the ampulla of the Vas Deferens


contributes thick, alkaline fluid contining fructose 

seminal vesicles


formed by the union of the seminal veicles and the ducuts deferens

describe the route and what it bifurcates.

ejaculatory ducts

  1. route
    1. transverses the posterior part of the prostate
      1. separating the prostate lobes
    2. opens into the prostatic urethra


compare the two close but different funcitons

  1. generates alkaline fluid to neutralize the vagina acidity
  2. contributes a thick, alkaline fluid containing fructose

  1. prostate
    1. produces an alkaline fluid that is added to seminal fluid to neutralize vaginal acidity
    2. prostatic fluids empty into the prostatic urethra throug hindividual duct openings
  2. seminal vesicles
    1. tortuous, coild tube that contributes a thick, alkaline fluid containing fructose to the seminal fluid
    2. does not store sperm


what structure contributes to fluids DIRECTLY into the prostatic urethra?

prostate- via the individual duct openings


describe the following of the prostate

  1. vasculature 
  2. lymphatics


  1. vasculature
    1. arteries
      1. internal iliac artery->inferior vesicle artery->prostate
    2. veins
      1. prostatic plexus of veins -> vesical plexus ->internal iliac vein or vertebral venous plexus
  2. lymphatic drainiage
    1. internal iliac nodes


desceibe the following with regard to the prostate

  1. sympathetic
  2. parasympathetic
  3. afferent

prostatic plexus

  1. sympathetic fibers
    1. T11-L2
    2. rich innervation of internal genital organs
    3. semen transport (sperm and secretion)
  2. parasympathetic 
    1. glands secretion
    2. gorm the cavernous nerves going to erectile tissues of penis in perineum
  3. GVA fibers- with reference to pain line
    1. above pain line
      1. travel with sympathetic fibers
        1. vas deferens
        2. upper par of seminal vesicles
    2. below pain line
      1. travel with parasympathetic fibers
        1. prostate 
        2. lower part of seminal vesicles
    3. other visceral sensations travel with parasympathetic fibers


a patient is experiencing noturia, urgency and dysuria. His doctor will suggest what exam. Explain the findings

regular prostate exam

  1. prostate is a frequent site of cancer in elderly males in the posterior lobe
    1. referred to clinically as the peripheral zone
  2. the protate isprone to enlargement in meddle ages and older males (benign prostatic hyperplasia -BHP
  3. reusulting in nocturia, urgency and dysuria
  4. typically the middle lobe referred to clincially as the central zone is involved


what are the central zone and peripheral zones of the prostate clinically relavent for?


damage to what nerves during prostatectomy can lead to what conditions?

radical surgery to cure prostate cancer involved removing prostate and seminal vesicles

  1. prostatic plexus and cavernous nerves
    1. parasympathetic
    2. innervate erectile tissues of penis 
    3. damage = impotence
  2. vesical plexus
    1. sympathetic fibers
    2. innervates
      1. internal urethral sphinter 
    3. damage = retrograde ejaculation (into bladder), leading to low emission and low volume ejaculate


passes into tinguinal canal to labium majorum

round ligament of uterus