People Flashcards Preview

GCSE AQA Business Unit 2 > People > Flashcards

Flashcards in People Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...

Define chain of command

Order authority and power is passed down:
Top management --> every employee at every level.


What do shopfloor workers do?

Carry out basic duties.


What do team leaders do?

Help managers achieve targets set by directors.

Use employees and other resources in the best possible way.


What do managers do?

Achieve the targets set by directors.

Use employees and other resources in the best possible way.


What do directors do?

Set long term plans and targets.


Define span of control

No. of people a manger organises and leads.


Define hierarchy

How management levels are structured and how communication takes place between members of the business. Most important person is at the top.


Define delegation

Sr. person asking a more Jr. person to complete a certain task/activity.


Define specialisation

People in an organisation carry out a small part of business activities to become experts at that particular bit.


Define function

Things a business does to meet customer needs.

E.g. marketing, finance, admission etc.


Define line manager

Employee's immediate superior/boss.


Define delayering

Removal of 1 or more layers in the hierarchy.


Define subordinate

Employees directly below a line manager.


Define flat structure

An organisation with few layers in the hierarchy,
wider span of control and quick communication.


What are the advantages of a flat structure?

1) Easier to communicate between levels.

2) Reduced overheads could increase efficiency.

3) Fewer layers in hierarchy means communication is easier.


What are the disadvantages of a flat structure?

1) Managers may have less time for each subordinate as there's a wide span of control and they must delegate effectively.

2) More delegation = More responsibility / stress.

3) Limited promotion opportunities.

4) May end up doing many jobs and not specialising.


Define tall structure

An organisation with many layers in the hierarchy, smaller span of control and slow communication.


What are the advantages of a tall structure?

1) More promotional opportunities increases motivation.

2) Subordinates report to a line manager who has authority over them.

3) More promotion and clear hierarchy.


What are the disadvantages of a tall structure?

1) Many levels = Longer chain of command = May take time to communicate / have poor communication issues.

2) Important details can be lost when reporting up hierarchy levels and chain of command.

3) Less delegation can mean low morale and lack of commitment.

4) Longer chain of command takes longer to make and implement decisions.


Why is delegation beneficial?

1) Provides more work for suboridantes:
they feel valued and motivated and work efficiently.

2) Increases motivation and managers can share their workload.

3) Workers gain xp. on jobs they wouldn't normally do.

4) Reduces stress of line manager.


Why could delegation be problematic?

1) Subordinates would have more work and potentially more stress and less pay.

2) Work might not be completed to high standard.

3) Workers might not want more work, could lead to low morale and more stress.


Define centralisation

Authority is with Sr. management at the business centre.


What are the advantages of centralisation?

1) Decisions are made by xp.d people with an overview of the business.

2) Ensures policies are consistent throughout the firm.

3) Ensures quick decisions can be made.


What are the disadvantages of centralisation?

1) Reduces input of day to day experts into the firm's decision making.

2) Risks discouraging branch managers who may feel mistrusted or powerless.


Define decentralisation

Authority is delegated down the hierarchy, away from the centre.


What are the advantages of decentralisation?

1) Can empower local managers and encourage them to be more motivated.

2) Reduces communication between head office and branches, giving Sr. managers time to consider long-term strategy.

3) Subordinates may have better knowledge of how local conditions affect their work, allowing them to make more well-judged choices. when doing delegated tasks.


What are the disadvantages of decentralisation?

1) Consistency reduction may unsettle customers (they expect every franchise to lookt the same).

2) No-one can provide leadership in an emergency situation.

3) May be duplication of roles and not cost effective.


What does induction training do?

Introduces the new employee to their workplace (usually on the 1st day of the new job).

It includes introducing them to their peers and explaining the company rules to them e.g. health and safety and being given a tour of the site. It could also include some initial training on how to do their new job.

It should help to make the new employee feel welcome and comfortable in their new working environment.


Define on-the-job training

Being shown how to do the job and then practising it.


What are the advantages of on-the-job training?

1) It's cost effective for the employer because the employee continues to work whilst they’re learning new skills.

2) Workers feel comfortable because they know their colleagues and the environment—which could increase working quality.

3) Content of the course is designed specifically for the business, so the workers know exactly what to do.