Flashcards in perception Deck (46):
visual cues take what into consideration?
depth, form, motion and constancy
how do you perceive DEPTH?
w/ binocular cues (needs both eyes)
1. retinal disparity (thanks to space b/w our eyes we see depth) each eye still relies on diff imgs but stilll take eah img as a sep piece of info
2. convergence (how eye balls are turned -- far things: eye muscles relax-to get more spce for light to go in?'' i think ; close things, eye muscles contract) working together to come up with ONE img
monocular cues help with??
only need 1 eyes
relative height-far= higher
shading and contour
motion parallax- closer things move faster, farther moves slower
size/shape/color doesnt change even when img casted on retina is not the same.
Ex: changes in lighting make apple looks brown but we know the apple is still a green apple
sensory adaptation happens with which senses?
all! hearing, touch, smell, propioception, and sight
hearing adaption: inner ear muscle with higher noise --> contracts to dampen sound takes time does not work with immediate gunshot sound but in concert helps
down regulation with bright light a
up regulation in the dark, cones and rods turn on light sensitive molecules
just noticeable diff relation to weber's law?
talks about DIFFERENCE at which you'll begin to notice change (in weight added)
the noticeable change % is CONSTANT!!
(ex 5% increase notice for every try
= webers law
absolute threshold of sensation
intensity of STIMULUS needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time.
dep on psychological states: expectation, motivation, alertness, experience...
(walking str8 into a pole)
when you received somatosensation info, the brain are getting signals about:
what type of somatosensation, intensity, timing and location.
*intensity = how quickly neuron fires
non-adapting: neuron fires at constant rate
fast beginning and starts to slow down
fires immediately when sense a stimulus and STOP, then start again when get another stiumulus
balance and orientation
w/ SEMICICULAR CANALs: posterior, lateral and anterior= orthogonal to each other.
canal with ENDOLYMPH filled,
and OTOLITHIC ORGANS (help detect linear acceleration and head positioning bc have small CaCO3 crystals in hair cells
utricle and saccule
help deter linear acceleration and head positioning
CaCo3 crystals attached to hair cells in viscous gel.
signal detection theory SDT
how do i make decision when im uncertain??
hit/miss if sign present
- more strength in signal: hit>miss
false alarm/correct rejection when no signal presents
SDT strategy "c"
"cee's strategy is always conservative" =always say no unless 100% sure. might get some misses
liberal strategies: always say yes even if get false alarms
bottom up vs. top down processing
begins with stimulus, never seen b4, data driven = INDUCTIVE REASONING ; always correct
use backgroun knowledge to influence perception, DEDUCTIVE REASONING, not always correct
try to explain why we perceive things the way we do
PRAGNANZ - reduce to simplest form possible. ex:audi sign sees as 4 circles instead crest circles
CONTINUITY: smoothest path possible looking at DOTSSSSSSSS ................
mind fillling missing triangle witout line actually connecting to make a triangle
(the mind processes the WHOLE of a perception rather than the sum of its parts... anything that breaks up into parts is not gestalt)
first layer, bends light in order to focus light onto retina
what accompany pupils big/small?
iris!! which control amount of light into eye
anterior chamber and _____ is space filled with ______.
and posterior chamber
aqueous humor that provides pressure for shape maintainenance
what gives eyes its COLOR?
__________ secrets aqueous humor?
ciliary body does
SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS + ciliary muscle = ciliary body
in vitreous chamber, jelly like for support and nutrition
mostly rods or cones? any specialized/focal area?
rods # > cones
MACULA - mostly cones
with a portion call FOEVA with only Cones
---> "FOrEVer and Only"
color and high level of detail
red green blue
=sensitive to light darknesss/shades of grey
usually turned on but turn off wen LIGHT hit
= white of eyes
attaching point for muscles
protection and structure
lined with conjunctitiva
describe phototransduction in response to LIGHT
rod turn off --> bipolar cells turn on --> activate a retinal ganglion cell
bipolar cells do what
send singals to optic nerve from the info cones and rods given. so duh its also in retina
phototransduction cascade in reaction to LIGHT
Retinal changes confirmation => α unit bonds with PDE => the rod hyperpolarizes and turns OFF.
A rod turns from on to off => turns a bipolar cell on-center => activates a retinal ganglion cell.
occurs at levels of high light levels
occurs at dawn or dusk
involves both cones and rods
used in low right does not receive input from the fovea due to the lack of rods. --> blind spot
rearing cats to only see horizontal lines will have cats resp to hori like and not vertical line
is the focusing of attention on an object by two separate individuals.
allows attention to be focused sustainably on a single task, in this case a single orientation of the Necker cube.
specializes in sending information about MOTION since most retinal ganglion cells begin outside of the fovea
LOW spacial resolution .
High Temporal resolu
Marr’s 4 stages of vision includes what ? and what is it
describes how 2D img --> 3D object
1. grey level desc/ input img
2. primal sketch (
3. 2.5D sketch
4. 3D objec-centerd descritopin
brain process the whole, rather than the sum of its parts.
dr taking all sxs presented by pt had come to 1 dagnosis.
how our two eyes combine img in front into 1 SINGLE IMAGE.
double vision affect convergence
relies on both eyes, take in img separately in each eye and together give DEPTH!!
gestalt's law of pragnanz
reality is reduced to the simpliest form in our perception
photopic vision occurs at what level of light
occurs at high level of light
occurs at dawn/dusk
involves both rods and cones
occurs at levels of very low lights
which structure is abundant in foeva?
no rods at all