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Flashcards in perception Deck (46):
1

visual cues take what into consideration?

depth, form, motion and constancy

2

how do you perceive DEPTH?

w/ binocular cues (needs both eyes)

1. retinal disparity (thanks to space b/w our eyes we see depth) each eye still relies on diff imgs but stilll take eah img as a sep piece of info

2. convergence (how eye balls are turned -- far things: eye muscles relax-to get more spce for light to go in?'' i think ; close things, eye muscles contract) working together to come up with ONE img

3

monocular cues help with??

only need 1 eyes

FORMS:
relative size-closer=bigger;

interposition-overlap;

relative height-far= higher

shading and contour

MOTION:
motion parallax- closer things move faster, farther moves slower

CONSTANCY
size/shape/color doesnt change even when img casted on retina is not the same.
Ex: changes in lighting make apple looks brown but we know the apple is still a green apple

4

sensory adaptation happens with which senses?

all! hearing, touch, smell, propioception, and sight

hearing adaption: inner ear muscle with higher noise --> contracts to dampen sound takes time does not work with immediate gunshot sound but in concert helps

sight adaptation:
down regulation with bright light a
up regulation in the dark, cones and rods turn on light sensitive molecules

5

just noticeable diff relation to weber's law?

talks about DIFFERENCE at which you'll begin to notice change (in weight added)

the noticeable change % is CONSTANT!!
(ex 5% increase notice for every try
= webers law

6

absolute threshold of sensation

minimum
intensity of STIMULUS needed to detect stimulus 50% of the time.

dep on psychological states: expectation, motivation, alertness, experience...

7

mechanoceptor

trigger by
PRESSURE

(walking str8 into a pole)

8

thermoception

temperature receptor

9

when you received somatosensation info, the brain are getting signals about:

what type of somatosensation, intensity, timing and location.

*intensity = how quickly neuron fires

10

timing

non-adapting: neuron fires at constant rate

slow-adapting:
fast beginning and starts to slow down

fast-adapting
fires immediately when sense a stimulus and STOP, then start again when get another stiumulus

11

inner ear
-parts
-jobs

balance and orientation

w/ SEMICICULAR CANALs: posterior, lateral and anterior= orthogonal to each other.
canal with ENDOLYMPH filled,
and OTOLITHIC ORGANS (help detect linear acceleration and head positioning bc have small CaCO3 crystals in hair cells

12

OTOLITHIC ORGANS

utricle and saccule

help deter linear acceleration and head positioning

CaCo3 crystals attached to hair cells in viscous gel.

13

signal detection theory SDT

how do i make decision when im uncertain??

results:
hit/miss if sign present
- more strength in signal: hit>miss

false alarm/correct rejection when no signal presents

14

SDT strategy "c"

"cee's strategy is always conservative" =always say no unless 100% sure. might get some misses


liberal strategies: always say yes even if get false alarms

15

bottom up vs. top down processing

bottom up:
begins with stimulus, never seen b4, data driven = INDUCTIVE REASONING ; always correct


top down:
wheres waldo???????
use backgroun knowledge to influence perception, DEDUCTIVE REASONING, not always correct

16

GESTALT PRINCIPLE

try to explain why we perceive things the way we do

by grouping
SIMILARITY

PRAGNANZ - reduce to simplest form possible. ex:audi sign sees as 4 circles instead crest circles

PROXIMITY

CONTINUITY: smoothest path possible looking at DOTSSSSSSSS ................

CLOSURE
mind fillling missing triangle witout line actually connecting to make a triangle

SYMMETRY


(the mind processes the WHOLE of a perception rather than the sum of its parts... anything that breaks up into parts is not gestalt)

17

cornea

first layer, bends light in order to focus light onto retina

18

what accompany pupils big/small?

iris!! which control amount of light into eye

19

anterior chamber and _____ is space filled with ______.

and posterior chamber

aqueous humor that provides pressure for shape maintainenance

20

what gives eyes its COLOR?

IRIS!!!!

21

__________ secrets aqueous humor?

ciliary body does

SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS + ciliary muscle = ciliary body

22

vitreous humour

in vitreous chamber, jelly like for support and nutrition

23

mostly rods or cones? any specialized/focal area?

rods # > cones

except
MACULA - mostly cones
with a portion call FOEVA with only Cones
---> "FOrEVer and Only"


24

cones

color and high level of detail

red green blue

25

rod

=sensitive to light darknesss/shades of grey

usually turned on but turn off wen LIGHT hit

26

sclera

= white of eyes
attaching point for muscles
protection and structure
lined with conjunctitiva

27

describe phototransduction in response to LIGHT

rod turn off --> bipolar cells turn on --> activate a retinal ganglion cell

28

bipolar cells do what

send singals to optic nerve from the info cones and rods given. so duh its also in retina

29

phototransduction cascade in reaction to LIGHT



Retinal changes confirmation => α unit bonds with PDE => the rod hyperpolarizes and turns OFF.

A rod turns from on to off => turns a bipolar cell on-center => activates a retinal ganglion cell.

30

photopic vision

occurs at levels of high light levels

31

mesopic vision

occurs at dawn or dusk
involves both cones and rods

32

scotopic

used in low right does not receive input from the fovea due to the lack of rods. --> blind spot

33

experience-dependent plasticity

rearing cats to only see horizontal lines will have cats resp to hori like and not vertical line

34

joint attention

is the focusing of attention on an object by two separate individuals.

35

directed attention

allows attention to be focused sustainably on a single task, in this case a single orientation of the Necker cube.

36

magno pathway

specializes in sending information about MOTION since most retinal ganglion cells begin outside of the fovea

LOW spacial resolution .

High Temporal resolu

37

Marr’s 4 stages of vision includes what ? and what is it

describes how 2D img --> 3D object

(4)
1. grey level desc/ input img
2. primal sketch (
3. 2.5D sketch
4. 3D objec-centerd descritopin

38

gestalt grouping

brain process the whole, rather than the sum of its parts.
WHOLE
not parts!!

dr taking all sxs presented by pt had come to 1 dagnosis.

39

convergence

how our two eyes combine img in front into 1 SINGLE IMAGE.

double vision affect convergence

40

binocular cues

relies on both eyes, take in img separately in each eye and together give DEPTH!!
still take

41

gestalt's law of pragnanz

reality is reduced to the simpliest form in our perception

42

photopic vision occurs at what level of light

occurs at high level of light

43

mesopic vision

occurs at dawn/dusk

involves both rods and cones

44

scotopic vision

occurs at levels of very low lights

45

which structure is abundant in foeva?

cones!
no rods at all

46

night blind spot

due to scotopic vision used in low light. does not receive input from fovea since no rods in fovea

rods work better in dark