Flashcards in Perception Deck (48)
Horace Barlow (1921)?
Chief Proponent of Physiological response
What does the physiological approach to perception suggest?
That understanding neurones and how they react to perceptual stimuli (and eachother) is the way to understand perception
What are main techniques used to study the physiologial approach to perception?
Single unit electrophysiology. Psychophysics, Neuroimaging
Top down perception?
processing based on previously acquired knowledge
Example of top down perception?
"brainstorm / Green Needle" viral video
Bottom Up Processing?
Processing based on the stimuli reaching the receptors
Little to be gained from lab experiments, experiments must be done in the real world
Chief proponent of ecological approach?
James Gibson (1904 - 1979)
Theories of perception?
Physiological approach (indirect), Ecological Approach, (direct), Computational approach (indirect)
Measuring Perception - The phenomenological approach
describing what you see / feel etc. Similar to introspection with wundt, except focusing more on external stimuli
Smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary for an observer to detect a stimulus
What is the method of limits?
A method to measure absolute threshold, zoom in on absolute threshold, moving above and below it less and less
What is method of adjustment?
A crude method, requires the participant to change the intensity and say when they can sense something
Usually begins with high intensity stimulus, then reduces down until participant cannot sense it, which then reverses directions and again, each point then gets averaged
Just Noticeable Difference
the ratio of the JND to the standard stimulus is constant
ΔI/I = k
The formula of Weber's Law
What is the formula of Weber's Law?
ΔI/I = k.
When subjects assign magnitude estimations to stimuli, their perception of magnitude is not accurate
advantage of observational studies in perception?
more ecologically valid
Who is the chief proponent of the ecological approach to perception?
James Gibson (1904-1979)
perception is information processing, transformation of sensory data from one form to another
Gross anatomy of the visual system?
the retina, with rods and cones almost at the back of the retina. Optic nerves lie closest to the pupil
What are the cells between the optic nerve and rods and cones?
Ganglion cells and blood vessels, bipolar and amacrine cells, then rods and cones
Which way do the outer segments of the rods and cones face?
away from the pupil
The receptive field is?
the region of retina, which, when stimulated, influences the firing rate of a neurone.
The process of tranforming light energy into electrical signals
What is the first step of phototransduction?
photons of light are absorbed by the pigments in the rods and cones
What are the pigments in the outer segment of rods?