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Flashcards in Perception Deck (48)
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1

Horace Barlow (1921)?

Chief Proponent of Physiological response

2

What does the physiological approach to perception suggest?

That understanding neurones and how they react to perceptual stimuli (and eachother) is the way to understand perception

3

What are main techniques used to study the physiologial approach to perception?

Single unit electrophysiology. Psychophysics, Neuroimaging

4

Top down perception?

processing based on previously acquired knowledge

5

Example of top down perception?

"brainstorm / Green Needle" viral video

6

Bottom Up Processing?

Processing based on the stimuli reaching the receptors

7

Ecological approach?

Little to be gained from lab experiments, experiments must be done in the real world

8

Chief proponent of ecological approach?

James Gibson (1904 - 1979)

9

Theories of perception?

Physiological approach (indirect), Ecological Approach, (direct), Computational approach (indirect)

10

Measuring Perception - The phenomenological approach

describing what you see / feel etc. Similar to introspection with wundt, except focusing more on external stimuli

11

Absolute threshold?

Smallest amount of stimulus energy necessary for an observer to detect a stimulus

12

What is the method of limits?

A method to measure absolute threshold, zoom in on absolute threshold, moving above and below it less and less

13

What is method of adjustment?

A crude method, requires the participant to change the intensity and say when they can sense something

14

Staircase method?

Usually begins with high intensity stimulus, then reduces down until participant cannot sense it, which then reverses directions and again, each point then gets averaged

15

JND?

Just Noticeable Difference

16

Weber's Law

the ratio of the JND to the standard stimulus is constant

17

ΔI/I = k

The formula of Weber's Law

18

What is the formula of Weber's Law?

ΔI/I = k.

19

Magnitude estimation?

When subjects assign magnitude estimations to stimuli, their perception of magnitude is not accurate

20

advantage of observational studies in perception?

more ecologically valid

21

Who is the chief proponent of the ecological approach to perception?

James Gibson (1904-1979)
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22

computational approach?

perception is information processing, transformation of sensory data from one form to another

23

Gross anatomy of the visual system?

the retina, with rods and cones almost at the back of the retina. Optic nerves lie closest to the pupil

24

What are the cells between the optic nerve and rods and cones?

Ganglion cells and blood vessels, bipolar and amacrine cells, then rods and cones

25

Which way do the outer segments of the rods and cones face?

away from the pupil

26

The receptive field is?

the region of retina, which, when stimulated, influences the firing rate of a neurone.

27

Phototransduction is?

The process of tranforming light energy into electrical signals

28

What is the first step of phototransduction?

photons of light are absorbed by the pigments in the rods and cones

29

What are the pigments in the outer segment of rods?

Rhodopsin

30

What do the photons do to the pigments in the rods and cones?

They force them to isomerise