perinatal and congenital infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in perinatal and congenital infections Deck (33):
1

what is the differnce in a congenital and perinatal infection?

congenital- happens whiel in the uterus
perinatal- during labor and delivery

2

what are the "TORCH" infections?

toxoplasmosis, Others, rubella, CMV, Herepes
Others= VZV, syphilis, Group B strep, parvo B19, HIV

3

who gets the worst of these infections? mom or the fetus?

Fetus, mom may be asymptomatic, or with only mild disease

4

what are some findings in a newborn that you should suspect perinatal/congenital infection?

IUGR, hepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia, unusual rash, presence of IgM's

5

what viral pathogens are more commonly perinatal infections than congenital?

HIV, and herpes simplex

6

what are the three infections that can be transmitted through breast milk?

CMV, HIV, HTLV-1

7

what is the triad of toxoplasmosis infection in a new born?

Choriotretinitis*, intracranial calcification, hydrocephalus

8

what leads to more severe manifesations of toxoplsmosis? how is this transmitted?

the earlier in pregnancy= more severe, but lower transmission rate
cats are definitive hosts, can also get it eating undercooked meat

9

hwo do you test for toxoplasmosis?

serology

10

what type of virus is the guilty party is a new born has probelms with cataracts, heart defects, and defness? can also have a purpuric rash

Toga virus- +ssRNA, Rubella
greatest concern in 1st trimester

11

how do you diagnose rubella?

serology

12

what type of virus is CMV?

herpes- dsDNA virus

13

what is the msot common cause of congenital infection in the US? what is the most common way of transmission?

CMV, in utero is the most common mode of transmission

14

are primary or recurrent maternal infections more dangerous to the fetus?

primary

15

what are the symptoms of CMV infection?

microcephaly, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, "blueberry muffin rash"

16

how do you diagnose CMV?

PCR from amniotic fluid, or from urine and oral secretions after birth

17

is the initial infection of HSV or a reacivation of HSV more dangerous to the fetus?

initial infection- no maternal imunity transfered

18

what are the three main categories of presentations for neonatal herpes infections?

1. mucocutaneous- vesicular rash on skin, eyes, mouth (45%)
2. encephalitis- 30%
3. disseminated jaundice, fever, rash (25%)

19

what is the in utero bacterial infection that affects fetuses?

T. pallidium ( syphilis)

20

what stage is associated with early manifestations ( under 2 in a child)? what about over 2?

under 2= secondary stage
over 2= tertiary

21

what are some late manifestations of congenital syphilis?

ocular problems, notched teeth, deafness, arthrits, gummas

22

what is the msost common cause of neonatal sepsis?

Group B strep

23

what are the stages of presentations with group B strep

early onset= from 24 hours after birth to 6 days
late onset= 4-5 weeks , can last 7 to 89 days

24

what are some manifestations of fetal group B strep infections?

pneumonia, shock, cellulitis, maningitis, septic athritis

25

what serotypes of chlamydia are asociated with neonatal infection?

B, and D-K

26

what does a neonatal infection of chlamydia lead to?

conjunctivits, pneumonia

27

what is the gold standard of Dx for chlamydia?

culture

28

what are the manifestations of gonorrhoeae infection in a fetus? how do you DX?

eye infection, septicemia, septic arthritis, meningitis
Dx- gram stain of eye exudate, culture ( thayer martin)

29

what are the effects of bacterial infections of the fetus?

prematurity and/or congenital disease

30

what aer the effects of parasitic infections of the fetus?

low birth weight and/or congenital disease

31

baby is born with scaring lesions on the limbs, and has multiple limb abnormalities, detection of a dsDNA virus is found, what is the most likely culprit?

VZV- leads to limb abnormalities, and scarring lesions

32

which viral family can lead to hydrops fetalis?

parvovirus B-19, ssDNA, non enveloped

33

what is the main determinant in the transmission of HIV to a newborn?

the viral load of mom