Brain injury occurring in the _____________ period is an important cause of childhood neurologic
disability. Injuries that occur early in gestation may destroy brain tissue without evoking the
usual “reactive” changes in the parenchyma and may be difficult to distinguish from
The broad clinical term____________ refers to a nonprogressive neurologic motor deficit
characterized by combinations of spasticity, dystonia, ataxia/athetosis, and paresis attributable
to insults occurring during the prenatal and perinatal periods. Signs and symptoms may not be
apparent at birth and only later declare themselves, as development proceeds
examinations of children with this cerebral palsy have shown a wide range of neuropathologic
findings, including destructive lesions traced to remote events that may have caused
hemorrhage and infarction
In premature infants there is an increased risk of intraparenchymal hemorrhage within the
germinal matrix, often near the junction between the ____________ and ____________
Hemorrhages may remain localized or extend into the ventricular system and thence to the
subarachnoid space, sometimes leading to hydrocephalus.
thalamus and the caudate nucleus.
Infarcts may occur in the _____________), especially in premature infants.
supratentorial periventricular white matter (periventricular
Describe the infarcts that may occur in the supratentorial periventricular white matter (periventricular
These are chalky yellow plaques consisting of
discrete regions of white matter necrosis and calcification.
When both gray and white matter are
involved by extensive ischemic damage, large destructive cystic lesions develop throughout the
hemispheres; this condition is termed ____________
Multicystic leukoencephalopathy. Numerous cystic spaces representing the
consequences of widespread ischemic injury are present.
In perinatal ischemic lesions of the cerebral cortex, the depths of sulci bear the brunt of injury
and result in_____________.
thinned-out, gliotic gyri (ulegyria
The basal ganglia and thalamus may also suffer
ischemic injury, with patchy neuronal loss and reactive gliosis. Later, aberrant and irregular
myelinization gives rise to a__________ appearance
Because the lesions are in the caudate, putamen, and thalamus, choreoathetosis and related
movement disorders are common clinical sequelae.
marble-like appearance of the deep nuclei: status marmoratus.