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Flashcards in Peripheral Blood Deck (61):
1

major components of blood

Formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets)
Blood plasma (PRO-rich liquid, electrolytes)

2

Blood proteins

In blood plasma; albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, complement proteins

3

albumin

blood plasma PRO that maintains osmotic pressure of blood and transports water-insoluble substances

4

globulin

blood plasma PRO; usually gamma globulins that are antibodies

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fibrinogen

blood plasma PRO necessary for blood coagulation via formation of fibrin

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complement PRO

blood plasma PRO important in inflammation and destruction of microorganisms

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hematocrit tube contents

Hematocrit (bottom): % of blood volume made of RBCs (41% females, 45% males)
Buffy coat (middle): leukocytes and platelets (1%)
Plasma (top): leftover PRO and electrolytes (>50%)

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What does low hematocrit tell you?

Anemia

9

What does high buffy coat value tell you?

since more leukocytes/platelets:
-localized/systemic infection
-blood malignancy

10

Erythrocyte size/color

6.5 to 8 microns in diameter
-deeper pink (eosin) at periphery

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fetal RBC

do have nuclei, but after birth they are made without nuclei, and the old fetal cells just die out

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purpose of RBC biconcave shape

provides large SA:V ratio (40% greater surface area than sphere)
-facilitates gas exchange
-can change shape to pass thru capillaries

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rouleaux

aggregate stack of RBCs in small blood vessels

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purpose of RBC cytoplasmic viscosity

higher intracellular hemoglobin concentration

15

RBC membrane skeleton

influences deformability and stability against shearing
spectrin - creates tracks between the different PRO on skeleton
actin - different from muscle actin; stabilizes some glycoPRO
protein 4.1 - connects spectrin to actin
ankyrin - connects spectrin to band 3 transport PRO

16

hemoglobin

about 1/3 of RBC weight, globular chromoprotein
globular PRO that is responsible for cytoplasmic viscosity and eosinophilia of RBC

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Sickle cell anemia mutation

changes glu --> val in DNA coding for B-chain of adult Hb

18

HbS

hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia
-insoluble at low O2 tension and crystallizes out

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RBC of sickle cell anemia

inflexibility and reduced life span can lead to anemia (low Hb)

increased blood viscosity can lead to ischemia (reduced blood supply)

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RBC life span

120 days, removed from circulation by macrophages in spleen, liver, bone marrow

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reticulocytes

NOT RETICULAR CELLS (those make collagen III)

young RBCs with some rRNA in cytoplasm, stained by brilliant cresyl blue
-about 1% of circulating RBC, so can be used as rough estimate of rate of erythropoiesis
-help monitor anemia, bone marrow regeneration, and hematopoetic restoration after therapy

22

percentages of leukocytes in a normal person

neutrophils: 60-70%
euosinophils: 2-4%
basophils: <1%
lymphocytes: 20-30%
monocyte/macrophages: 3-8%

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diapedesis

used to think was paracellular movement (between cells), but found to be transcellular (through cells)

24

neutrophils (structure/contents)

2-5 lobes of same nucleus, connected by bridges, all heterochromatic
-no nucleoli
-salmon pink cytoplasm due to 80% specific granules (small), with few mitochondria, small Golgi, poorly developed RER, few ribosomes, some glycogen
-20% azurophilic granules (large, from primary lysosomes)

25

neutrophil specific granule contents

work together for phagocytosis
lysozyme - hydrolyzes glycosides in bacterial cell wall
lactoferrin - binds Fe
alkaline phosphatase, collagenase

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neutrophil azurophilic granule contents

menu of hydrolytic enzymes (from primary lysosomes) to hydrolyze dead bacteria
-myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin - within microvesicles, have antibacterial activity
-create cytokines

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neutrophil respiratory burst

uses up O2 to form superoxide anions to kill bacteria

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neutrophil netosis

release of mesh-like structure capable of trapping microbes

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eosinophil

bilobed nucleus with only large specific (eosinophilic) granules w/ crystalline core (w/ major basic PRO)
-same size as neutrophils

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eosinophil specific granule contents

acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, B-glucuronidase, cathespin, phospholipase, RNAase, eosinophilic peroxidase, major basic PRO, histaminase, eosinophil cationic PRO, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin

31

eosinophil function

-kill parasitic worm larvae (major basic PRO)
-phagocytosis of Ag-Ab complexes (via hydrolytic enzymes)
-inactive mediators of inflammation (histamine, SRS-A)
-make lipid mediators of inflammation (leukotrienes)
--do one or the other depending on situation
-produce cytokines (ILs) to promote self-survival, enhance activity, and act on immune system
-play role in asthma (infiltrate bronchial mucosa for bronchoconstriction, excess mucus secretion, inflammation, and airway remodeling (hyper-responsiveness)

32

basophils

less nuclear segmentation, and obscured by azurophilic granules
-same size as neutrophils
-lamellar/spherical substructure

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basophil specific granule contents

eosinophilic chemotactic factor, heparin, histamine, peroxidase, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A)

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basophil function

-inflammation (generalized response)
-immediate hypersensitivity reactions (localized/wide spread, mediated by IgE)
-delayed hypersensitivity reactions (take 12-18 hours to develop, if chemicals or ticks)

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relationship between basophils and mast cells

they are different, but share characteristics
-rapid degranulation of basophils and mast cells may occur at the same type (localized or widepsread/anaphylactic shock)

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relationship between basophils and eosinophils

accumulate at same site

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granular leukocytes

have specific cytoplasmic granules, and sometimes azurophilic granules
-neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

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agranular leukocytes

lack specific cytoplasmic granules, but may have others
-lymphocytes, monocytes

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lymphocyte sizes

small, large agranular, large granular (natural killers)

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small/medium lymphocytes

the same size as RBC
-round heterochromatic nucleus
-pale blue cytoplasm
-most frequent size class in peripheral blood

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large agranular lymphocytes

larger than RBC
-larger, less heterochromatic nucleus
-cytoplasm has more organelles
-have been activated by specific antigens

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large granular lymphocytes

Natural Killer cells - have large azurophilic cytoplasmic granules
5-10% circulating lymphocytes
-no B/T cell surface molecules

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3 functional classes of lymphocytes

T lymphocytes
B lymphocytes
Null cells (NK cells)

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B lymphocytes

10-15% of circulating lymphocytes
-Ag receptors are Igs
-differentiate into plasma cells (via mitosis) to make Ab (humoral immunity), or memory cells (adaptive immunity)

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T lymphocytes

70-80% of circulating lymphocytes
-receptors are not Igs, but require APCs to activate
-activated T cells differentiate into CD8, CD4, or regulator T cells

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CD8

cytotoxic T cells
-involved in cell mediated immunity via perforin (lyse target cells) and granzymes (induce apoptosis)

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CD4

helper T cells

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regulator T cells

suppress response of other leukocytes to foreign antigens and self antigens (if autoimmune)
-may block antitumor responses of CD8

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functions of natural killer cells

killing of virus-infected cells or malignant cells (without prior sensitization)
produce cytokines (like IFN-y) to influence host's immune response
-T-cell polarization, maturation of dendritic cells

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monocyte

largest leukocyte with variably shaped nuclei (more euchromatic)
-abundant cytoplasm w/ full complement of organelles, small azurophilic granules, vacuoles
-nucleolus present

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lifespan of monocyte

circulate for about 3 days, leave blood, and transform into histiocytes

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monocyte functions

-phagocytosis of bacteria/tissue debris
-Ag presentation
-fusion to form osteoclasts
-formation of giant cells if chronic inflammation
-produce cytokines for hematopoisis regulation
-immune surveillance of endothelial cells (patrolling)

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platelets

small, non-nucleated cytoplasmic fragments
-made by megakaryocytes, so has functional mRNAs
-usually 250,000/ul, and live for 10 days before apoptosis

54

functions of blood platelets

-seal off breaks in blood vessels
-role in blood coagulation (provide surface and make factors 8/9)
-maintain competence (integrity) of endothelium
-may be related to arthritis, and inhibition of angiogenesis

55

non-PRO plasma components

electrolytes
N-substances (urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, ammonium salts)
nutrients (GLU, lipids, AA)
blood gases (O2, CO2, N2)
regulatory substances (hormones/enzymes)

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HbA1

major form of Hb in adults (95%)
-2 alpha chains + 2 beta chains

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HbA2

minor form of Hb in adults (5%)
-2 alpha chains + 2 delta chains

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HbF

made in intrauterine period
-2 alpha chains + 2 gamma chains

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oxyhemoglobin

RBC carrying O2 from pulmonary alveoli to tissues

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carbaminohemoglobin

RBC carrying CO2 from tissues to pulmonary alveoli

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neutrophil functions

-main function is phagocytosis and bacterial killing via cell motility and chemotaxis
-specific granules fuse with phagosome, so lysozome/lactoferrin can kill bacterium
-azurophilic granules fuse with phagosome to make secondary lysosome, so enzymes hydrolyze dead bacterium