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Flashcards in Peripheral Blood Deck (61)
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1

major components of blood

Formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets)
Blood plasma (PRO-rich liquid, electrolytes)

2

Blood proteins

In blood plasma; albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, complement proteins

3

albumin

blood plasma PRO that maintains osmotic pressure of blood and transports water-insoluble substances

4

globulin

blood plasma PRO; usually gamma globulins that are antibodies

5

fibrinogen

blood plasma PRO necessary for blood coagulation via formation of fibrin

6

complement PRO

blood plasma PRO important in inflammation and destruction of microorganisms

7

hematocrit tube contents

Hematocrit (bottom): % of blood volume made of RBCs (41% females, 45% males)
Buffy coat (middle): leukocytes and platelets (1%)
Plasma (top): leftover PRO and electrolytes (>50%)

8

What does low hematocrit tell you?

Anemia

9

What does high buffy coat value tell you?

since more leukocytes/platelets:
-localized/systemic infection
-blood malignancy

10

Erythrocyte size/color

6.5 to 8 microns in diameter
-deeper pink (eosin) at periphery

11

fetal RBC

do have nuclei, but after birth they are made without nuclei, and the old fetal cells just die out

12

purpose of RBC biconcave shape

provides large SA:V ratio (40% greater surface area than sphere)
-facilitates gas exchange
-can change shape to pass thru capillaries

13

rouleaux

aggregate stack of RBCs in small blood vessels

14

purpose of RBC cytoplasmic viscosity

higher intracellular hemoglobin concentration

15

RBC membrane skeleton

influences deformability and stability against shearing
spectrin - creates tracks between the different PRO on skeleton
actin - different from muscle actin; stabilizes some glycoPRO
protein 4.1 - connects spectrin to actin
ankyrin - connects spectrin to band 3 transport PRO

16

hemoglobin

about 1/3 of RBC weight, globular chromoprotein
globular PRO that is responsible for cytoplasmic viscosity and eosinophilia of RBC

17

Sickle cell anemia mutation

changes glu --> val in DNA coding for B-chain of adult Hb

18

HbS

hemoglobin in sickle cell anemia
-insoluble at low O2 tension and crystallizes out

19

RBC of sickle cell anemia

inflexibility and reduced life span can lead to anemia (low Hb)

increased blood viscosity can lead to ischemia (reduced blood supply)

20

RBC life span

120 days, removed from circulation by macrophages in spleen, liver, bone marrow

21

reticulocytes

NOT RETICULAR CELLS (those make collagen III)

young RBCs with some rRNA in cytoplasm, stained by brilliant cresyl blue
-about 1% of circulating RBC, so can be used as rough estimate of rate of erythropoiesis
-help monitor anemia, bone marrow regeneration, and hematopoetic restoration after therapy

22

percentages of leukocytes in a normal person

neutrophils: 60-70%
euosinophils: 2-4%
basophils: <1%
lymphocytes: 20-30%
monocyte/macrophages: 3-8%

23

diapedesis

used to think was paracellular movement (between cells), but found to be transcellular (through cells)

24

neutrophils (structure/contents)

2-5 lobes of same nucleus, connected by bridges, all heterochromatic
-no nucleoli
-salmon pink cytoplasm due to 80% specific granules (small), with few mitochondria, small Golgi, poorly developed RER, few ribosomes, some glycogen
-20% azurophilic granules (large, from primary lysosomes)

25

neutrophil specific granule contents

work together for phagocytosis
lysozyme - hydrolyzes glycosides in bacterial cell wall
lactoferrin - binds Fe
alkaline phosphatase, collagenase

26

neutrophil azurophilic granule contents

menu of hydrolytic enzymes (from primary lysosomes) to hydrolyze dead bacteria
-myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin - within microvesicles, have antibacterial activity
-create cytokines

27

neutrophil respiratory burst

uses up O2 to form superoxide anions to kill bacteria

28

neutrophil netosis

release of mesh-like structure capable of trapping microbes

29

eosinophil

bilobed nucleus with only large specific (eosinophilic) granules w/ crystalline core (w/ major basic PRO)
-same size as neutrophils

30

eosinophil specific granule contents

acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, B-glucuronidase, cathespin, phospholipase, RNAase, eosinophilic peroxidase, major basic PRO, histaminase, eosinophil cationic PRO, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin