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Flashcards in Peripheral Circulation Deck (27)
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1

Explainthemeaningofeachofthefollowing a) hydrostatic pressure
b) Korotkoff sounds c) cardiacoutput
d) compliance

a)the force of the blood against the walls of the blood vessels
b)The sounds, heard with a stethoscope, of blood flowing through a partially compressed artery
c)the volume of blood pumped by one side of the heart in one minute
d)the ability of a vessel to enlarge to accomodate a larger volume of fluid

2

Describe how blood pressure varies in different parts of the circulatory system by sketching a graph with pressure on the Y axis and distance from the heart on the X axis. Label the vessels that the blood passes through and include some representative values for pressure (5 marks).

see notes

3

Complete the following relationship ______ = (P1 – P2/R)
and explain what P1, P2 and R refer to (2marks).

flow
P1 and P2 are the hydrostatic pressures at two places along a vessel; R is the resistance to flow

4

Explain what hematocrit is and list two ways it influences the cardiovascular system (2
marks).

hematocrit is the percentage of the blood that is made up of erythrocytes
increasing the hematocrit increases the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood and increases the resistance to flow

5

Describe the difference between laminar and turbulent flow, giving an example of
each, and their relevance to cardiovascular function (2 marks).

laminar flow - the molecules of the fluid move in parallel to each other and the walls of the vessel (an example is movement of the blood through a straight, unbranched vessel); turbulent flow - the molecules of the fluid move at angles to the walls of the chamber and collide with each other and the walls of the chamber (an example is the movement of blood through a partially blocked vessel).

6

Name and describe the three main factors that affect cardiovascular resistance and
list them in order of importance (3 marks).

resistance increases as the radius of the vessel decreases; resistance increases as viscosity and length of the vessel increases

7

Explain the principles underlying taking a blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer
(3 marks).

- a blood pressure cuff around the arm is inflated to the point where the flow of blood through the artery of the arm stops completely
- the pressure in the cuff is reduced gradually while a stethoscope is applied to the artery distal to the cuff
- the appearance of beating sounds signals the systolic pressure
the disappearance of sounds signals the diastolic pressure

8

Explain what pulse pressure is.

= the difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure

9

Describe how compliance changes with age and list three effects this has on
cardiovascular function (4 marks).

compliance decreases with age
1) this lowers the diastolic pressure
2) the systolic pressure increases to compensate
3) the mean arterial pressure increases
4) the workload of the heart increases

10

Describe capillary exchange; the structures involved and the forces involved (4
marks).

- the blood that enters the capillary from the arteriole has a blood pressure of about 30 mm Hg; greater than the blood pressure of the blood that leaves the capillary at the venule end (about 15 mm Hg)
- the osmotic pressure remains constant along the capillary and acts in the opposite direction to blood pressure
- at the arteriole end, the blood pressure is greater than osmotic pressure and fluid moves out of the blood
-at the venule end, the blood pressure is less than the osmotic pressure and fluid moves into the capillary
- excess fluid in the interstitial space is drained by lymphatic vessels
- water and solutes move because of differences between blood pressure and osmotic pressure (bulk flow) but they can also move in and out of the blood by diffusion

11

Explain what edema is and describe four processes that can cause it (5 marks).
-look up

- edema is the accumulation of excess fluid in the interstitial space
1.increased permeability of capillaries (due to chemical mediator of inflammation like histamine & bradykinin)
- protein leaks into interstitial fluid
- colloid osmotic pressure inc. in ISF resulting in reduced return of fluid to capillary
2.decreased plasma protein concentration (due to albumin synthesis in liver)
- reduces BCOP
3. blockage of veins
- increases resistance and CHP at venous end of capillary
4. blockage or removal of lymphatic vessel (blockage: elephantiasis; removal: cancer)

12

List three possible effects of vasoconstriction

increased peripheral resistance
-increased flow to downstream tissues
-increased blood pressure

13

Explain how decreased urinary output could influence cardiovascular function.

-it will lead to decreased blood volume which will result in decreased blood pressure

14

List three ways in which blood flow to tissues is regulated (3 marks).

1) compounds released from cells cause vasodilation or vasoconstriction of vessels supplying those cells
2) sympathetic nerves control smooth muscles of blood vessels
3) hormones cause vasoconstriction or vasodilation of blood vessels that have receptors.

15

Explain the mechanism for local control of blood flow (hyperemia).

CO2 and H+ are produced as a result of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, causing vasodilation and increased blood flow to metabolically active tissues
- other substances released by metabolically active cells also contribute to vasodilation

16

________________ is a substance produced by endothelial cells that causes
vasodilation

nitric oxide

17

_________________ is a substance produced by endothelial cells that causes
vasoconstriction.

endothelin

18

_________________ is a substance produced by muscle cells that causes
vasodilation.

carbon dioxide, or H+, adenosine, potassium ions or prostaglandins

19

_________________ is a substance produced by white blood cells that causes
vasodilation.

histamine

20

________________ is a substance produced by plasma proteins that causes vasodilation.

bradykinin

21

Describe how blood vessels respond to stimulation by sympathetic nerves (2 marks).

sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine which causes constriction when it binds to alpha receptors and dilation when it binds to beta receptors

22

List four ways in which the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine effect the
cardiovascular system (4 marks).

1) increase heart rate
2) increase contractility of heart
3) increase blood pressure
4) increase blood flow to skeletal muscles
5) decrease blood flow to digestive tract/kidneys

23

Describe the way in which the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system regulates
cardiovascular function (4 marks).

- renin results in the activation of the blood protein angiotensinogen, forming angiotensin I
- angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II in the lungs
- angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction which increases blood pressure
angiotensin II causes release of aldosterone which increases blood volume and blood pressure

24

Describe the way in which vasopressin (ADH) regulates cardiovascular function (3
marks).

- vasopressin causes vasoconstriction which increases blood pressure
- vasopressin reduces the amount of water excreted in urine and
-increases blood volume and blood pressure

25

Describe the way in which atrial natriuretic peptide regulates cardiovascular function

atrial natriuretic peptide increases the amount of water excreted by the kidneys, reducing blood volume and blood pressure.

26

Describe how a baroreceptor reflex affects blood pressure (3 marks).

pressure receptors in the aorta and carotid sinus respond to increase blood pressure
- afferent impulses are transmitted along the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to the medulla oblongata
- reflexes in the medulla oblongata carry afferent information to the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and blood vessels (sympathetic)

27

Describe the mechanism by which chemoreceptor reflexes affect blood pressure (3
marks).

- receptors in the aorta and carotid sinus respond to increased carbon dioxide and decreased pH of blood
- afferent impulses are transmitted along the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to the medulla oblongata
- reflexes in the medulla oblongata carry afferent information to the heart (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and blood vessels (sympathetic)