Personality Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Personality Disorders Deck (21):
1

Personality disorder:

Enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior

Cognitive, emotional, interpersonal, and behavioral components
Leads to distress or impairment
Pervasive and inflexible
Onset in adolescence or early adulthood and stable over time

2

4 main character types:

narcissistic, compulsive, hysterical, masochistic

3

Cluster A personalities; include what?

Psychotic-like, but not psychotic;
Paranoid
Schizoid
Schizotypal

4

Paranoid PD:

A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning by early adulthood

Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder

5

Schizoid PD:

A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions

Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder

6

Schizotypal PD:

A pervasive pattern of interpersonal deficits marked by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior

Does not occur exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder

7

Cluster B personalities are; include

Dreaded disorders, behavioral;
Antisocial
Histrionic
Narcissistic
Borderline

8

Antisocial PD:

Pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years

Evidence of a Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15 years

Antisocial behavior is not exclusively during schizophrenia or a manic episode

9

Histrionic PD:

Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, beginning by early adulthood, such as:

Sexually seductive or provocative behavior

Self-dramatization, theatricality, exaggerated emotional expression

Is easily influenced by others

Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are

10

Narcissistic PD:

A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy and behavior) beginning by early adulthood

Need for admiration

Lack of empathy

Sense of entitlement

11

Borderline PD:

A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood. > 5/9 needed
1. Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
2. Unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, alternating idealization and devaluation
3. Persistently unstable self-image or sense of self
4. Impulsivity that is potentially self-damaging
5. Recurrent suicidal behavior or threats, or self-mutilation
6. Mood lability and reactivity
7. Chronic feelings of emptiness
8. Frequent or intense anger outbursts
9. Transient paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms

12

Cluster C personalities; include

anxious, but not anxiety disordered;
Avoidant
Obsessive-Compulsive
Dependent

13

Avoidant PD:

Pervasive pattern of social inhibition beginning by early adulthood

Inhibited in social situations because of feelings of inadequacy

Hypersensitive to criticism or rejection

14

OCPD:

By early adulthood:

Preoccupied with details, rules, lists, schedules
Perfectionism interferes with task completion
Excessively devoted to work and productivity
Scrupulous about morality, ethics, and values
Unable to discard worn-out objects
Micro-manages tasks
Miserly spending style
Rigid and stubborn

15

Dependent PD:

Pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of beginning by early adulthood
Indecisive
Submissive and clingy
Difficulty expressing disagreement
Lack of self-confidence, feeling of helplessness
Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others

16

Epidemiology of PD's:

Overall prevalence of personality disorders is 15%

Paranoid, avoidant, and dependent PD were more prevalent in women

Antisocial PD was more prevalent in men

Risk factors: not married, impoverished, poorly educated

Prevalence rates vary by country, setting, and gender

17

Exacerbating factors/DD:

Substances
Medical/psychiatric disorders
Stress
Close relationships

18

Etiology of personality disorders; biological markers:

Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides;
Neuroimaging

19

Treatment of Cluster A:

Antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy may provide modest benefit

20

Treatment of Cluster B:

1. Modest efficacy, especially mood stabilizers, antipsychotics.
2. Benzodiazepines may exacerbate condition
3. Co-occurring conditions (depression, anxiety, etc.) may also respond poorly to medications;

Case reports and series suggest that all are potentially treatable.
RCTs. Only borderline PD. 3 psychodynamic and 2 cognitive behavioral models shown to be highly effective

21

Cluster C treatments:

Psychopharmacology – avoidant PD
Psychotherapy – RCT indicated efficacy for CBT and psychodynamic