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Flashcards in The Life Cycle Deck (30):

Prentally, what are we worried about?

Physical (infections, exposure to drugs); behavior patterns in-utero can presage those that occur after birth;
prematurely: <32 weeks


AGPAR: What does it stand for and what is it used for?

Appearance (color), pulse, grimace (reflex irritability), activity (muscle tone), respiration; used to predict LIKELIHOOD OF IMMEDIATE SURVIVAL


Regarding birth, low income is associated with; prematurity is associated with

premature births and high infant mortality; delayed childbearing/increased maternal age;

ALSO: no free prenatal care and LOW INCOME associated with premature births and high infant mortality


Some postpartum reactions:

1. baby blues (exaggerated emotionality and tearfulness lasting a few days after birth)
2. oxytocin-dopamine interactions associated with maternal-infant bond
3. social and psychological factors
4. Major depression (can last up to 1 year)
5. Postpartum psychosis


Spheres of development

Motor, social, verbal/cognitive, cephalad to caudad and central to peripheral


Infancy to 18 mos:

1. Humans need and seek presence of others
2. Attachment
3. Social smile: 12 wks
4. Stranger anxiety 9 mos
5. Separation anxiety late in first year, with object permanence coming first


Importance of attachment slide:

1. Psychoimmunology
2. Want to encourage families to spend time with kids when hospitalized; also foster families
3. If kid is separated from parents because they work all the time, no evidence of long-term consequences


Reflexes characteristic of infant

1. Rooting reflex (touch cheek turn toward nipple)
2. Palmar grasp reflex
3. Moro reflex (limbs extend when child is startled)
4. Babinski reflex (disappears at 1 year)


Toddler years: 18 mos to 3 years

1. Rapprochement (goes away but comes back for comfort)
2. Parallel play; also begin to say NO!!
3. at 3 years: spend a few hours away from mother in care of another adult
4. Autonomy
5. Bowel and bladder function (more at 4 and 5 years, respectively)
6. Gender ID by 3 years


For 3-6 years:

1. sibling rivalry
2. regression
3. b/w 2-4 years: old vocab increases dramatically; repeats bathroom words
4. Active fantasy life (imaginary friends: know that they're not real)
5. Cooperative play at 4 years
6. Strong fear of bodily injury
7. Curiosity about bodies: e.g. play doctor


Milestone at 6 years:

1. Child conscience develops (superego)
2. Sense of morality
3. Empathy
4. Learns that lying is wrong
5. Understand finality of death: get fear of losing loved ones



Disorders before age 6:

Think mostly autism spectrum disorders (seen before age 3, no finger pointing, more common in boys, larger head circumference, then genetic component);
also Rett's disorder and Childhood Degen Disorder


School Age and Adolescence (7-11 yoa)

1. Psychosexual issues are dormant
2. Industry vs inferiority
3. Lifelong sense of competence (in school kids comparing with each other and if they measure up to one another)
4. Formal schooling starts (capable of logical thought, like reason and math)
5. Concrete operations (more than one property, concept of conservation)
6. Learning problems ID'd!!


Play and Peer Relationships

Let him talk about this slide;
focusing on peer relationships, morality and being RULE CONSCIOUS, and more complex motor tasks with team sports; ID with parent of same sex, also universality of death!!


For adolescence: 11 to 20 years

Early adolescence (11-14): puberty the physical indicator of adolescence, with girls earlier than boys, first menstruation at 11-14, first ejaculation at 12-15, and complete by 13.5 years in girls vs 15 in guys (Tanner Staging); here, more likely to be obedient to adults

Middle (15-17): at 15, body image and popularity, wanting to spend time with friends and not family; now risk-taking behavior because frontal lobe not FULLY DEVELOPED; want autonomy/need for privacy and need education about short-term benefits regarding physical appearance or popularity

Late adolescence (18-20): ID crisis, ROLE CONFUSION, maybe some developing abstraction (hypothetical and formal reasoning: calculus and formal operations)


Emotional and social factors predisposing to teen pregnancy:

1. Depression
2. Poor school achievement
3. Divorced parents;
preggers rate among older women is increasing


Certain problems affecting development:

Mental Retardation (Down Syndrome and Fragile X syndrome most common genetic factors)


Challenges of Early and Middle Adulthood

1. Transitional Periods
2. Reappraisal of desires, goals and values
3. Vulnerable to physical and emotional illness during periods of life change (midlife crises)
4. Regression (maybe become more adolescent)


Early adulthood (20-40 years):

1. age 30: one's role in society is defined, physical development at peak, individual INDEPENDENT
2. age 30 transition: love and work/intimacy vs isolation
3. Women often change paths in middle 30s, either by returning to work or becoming homemakers


Middle Adulthood (40-65 years)

1. Unique social responsibilities
2. Sandwich generation (responsibilities to older and younger relatives)
3. More life behind than ahead
4. Climacterium
5. Men decrease in muscle strength, endurance, sex performance; women have menopause but few significant physical/psychological changes; vasomotor instability: sleep and fatigue relied with ERT but increased risk of cancer for uterus


Losses of Aging:

65 yrs and older:
1. Loss of social status
2. Loss by death of spouses, family members and friends
3. Decline in overall health and strength
4. Most adjust well: freedom from work and childrearing
5. Either pride in accomplishments or life feels wasted

(past 65, you are a senior citizen with social security and medicare eligibility); 85 and older is fastest growing segment of population


Physical and Neurological Changes of aging

1. Neuro changes: decreased cerebral blood flow, decreased brain weight, amyloid plaques
2. Intelligence remains the same
3. Decreased NT availability (less secretion, increased MAO, less responsive receptors)
4. More sens to SE's (increased depression)


Pyschosocial changes of aging

1. Reduced bladder control
2. Loss of strength
3. Vision and hearing loss
4. Abuse of cognitive or physically impaired elderly by caretakers (elder abuse, adult protective services are not mandates)


Psychopath in elderly:

1. depression (memory loss and cognitive problems called pseudodementia)
2. Suicide rates increasing: social loss, physical illness or depression more common in elderly than general pop
3. Anxiety
4. Alcohol and substance abuse
5. Delirium (illness or depression)


Theories on development:

Chess and Thomas: temperament (activity level, reactivity to stimuli, cyclic behavior patterns, reactions to people, mood, distractibility, attention span)
Erikson: critical periods of social goals
Piaget: cognitive stages
Mahler: separation-individuation
Freud: parts of body in which pleasure is derived


Other disorders with development (ie learning and comm)

1. Phonological disorders (ca and not cat, top instead of stop)
2. Articulation disorders (can't make right motor movements, so lisping)
3. Tourette's (runs with OCD often; before 18, involuntary)
4. Separation anxiety disorder (school phobia or school refusal; starts at 7 years)
5. Selective mutism (start at age 6 usually)


Assisted repro and adoption:

1. Fertility tends to decrease with age
2. Can do IN VITRO
3. Adoption: should ideally get them in infancy; also tell them at earliest possible age and all you know about biological parents


How do most of the elderly in America live?

Most live independently; otherwise, younger family members watch over them, they are in assisted living, or in nursing homes


Over age 85,

half have some degree of cognitive impairment; most common form of dementia is ALZHEIMER'S!!;
think MEMORY and LEARNING problems


Bereavement vs. Complicated bereavement: similarities and differences

1. Both have initial shock and denial, but denial in abnormal can last over days or weeks
2. Both with sadness, crying
3. Anniversary reactions
4. Abnormal grief has symptoms intensify or persist over time rather than lessen and has suicidal thinking or hallucinations