What are examples of group personality?
1. culture groups
2. friend groups
3. Activity groups
How are personality traits defined?
-Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and oneself
-Tendency to feel, perceive, behave and think in relatively consistent ways across time/situations in which the trait may manifest
What are influencing factors of personality?
1. Genetic (50% of trait variation due to genetics)
2. Environment (culture group, parents/home environment)
3. Birth order (oldest is achievement oriented, middle is peacemaker, youngest is the risk taker/intellectual rebel)
Personality development: what occurs from birth to 18 months?
development of trust
-if needs not met: learns to mistrust and can become withdrawn
Personality development- What occurs from 18mo to 3 years
development of independence
-failure to master promotes self doubt
Personality development- 3-6 years
-harsh scolding for poor initiatives- promotes feeling of unworthiness, guilt/resentment
Personality development- 6-12 years
Personality development- 12-19yrs
search for identity
Personality development- 20-40 yrs
Personality development- 40-65 years
create and nurture
Personality development- 65+ years
Look back on their lives/reflection
What are the 5 primary personality factors?
1. Emotional stability
2. Extroversion- how much one likes being with other people
3. Openness/ open-mindedness
4. Warmth (agreeableness)- tendency to relate to other people in a friendly way
5. conscientiousness- how responsible and self-disciplined one is
What are psychopathological conditions due to?
1. Maladaptive thought (misperceptions/misinterpretations)
2. Behavior patterns associated with a distorted world view- intrapersonal relations (thoughts about self ) and interpersonal relations (thoughts about environment)
When are personality disorders thought to begin?
Because of this, they are difficult to tx
Which consistent childhood/adolescent behavior traits are risk factors?
1. Frequent mood swings
2. Angry outbursts
3. Social anxiety sufficient to cause difficulty making friends
4. Need to be center of attention
5. Feeling of being widely cheated or taken advantage of
6. Difficulty delaying gratification
7. Not feeling there is anything wrong with ones behavior
8. Externalizing and blaming the world for one's behaviors and feelings
According to DSM 5, what is the general criteria for personality disorders
1. Enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from expectations of individuals culture
2. enduring pattern is inflexible and pervasice across broad range of personal and social situations
3. pattern leads to significant distress or impairment
4. Pattern is stable and of long duration- onset is adolescence or early adulthood
5. Enduring pattern is not better explained as a manifestation/consequence of another mental disorder
6. Pattern not from substance abuse or medical condition
General criteria (DSM 5) of personality disorders- How is the enduring pattern manifested?
It is manifested in 2+ of the following areas:
1. cognition (ways of perceiving self/others/events)
2. Affectivity (the range, intensity, lability, etc of emotional response)
3. Interpersonal functioning
4. Impulse control
What personality disorders are in "cluster A"?
Individuals may appear odd or eccentric
What personality disorders are in "cluster B"?
Individuals often appear dramatic, emotional or erratic
What personality disorders are in "cluster C"?
Individuals often appear anxious or fearful
Epidemiology- Which 2 personality disorders have the highest prevelance?
1. Avoidant (2.7)
2. Obsessive compulsive (2.5)
Which 2 personality disorders have the highest rate of heritability?
1. Borderline (0.61)
2. Obsessive compulsive (0.60)