Pharm 14- Platelet Inhibitors, Thrombolytics, AT-III Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Pharm 14- Platelet Inhibitors, Thrombolytics, AT-III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharm 14- Platelet Inhibitors, Thrombolytics, AT-III Deck (80):
1

Many functions are mediated by what ability of aspirin?

Irreversibly bind (and inactivate) the enzyme cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and modify the activities of COX-2; inhibition lasts for the entire life of the platelet

2

How does aspirin affect platelets?

Platelets release of ADP is inhibited
Ability to synthesize Thromboxane A2 and Prostaglandin E2 from Arachadonic Acid is inhibited

3

What do the thromboxanes produced by platelets do?

Tend to help induce clot formation while the prostaglandins tend to be pro-inflammatory

4

What does COX-2 produce once its been modified by aspirin?

Lipoxins; once its been modified by aspirin

5

What's the effect of Lipoxins?

Anti-inflammatory

6

What does the blocking of thromboxanes do to platelets?

Platelets won't aggregate for the life of the platelet (a good thing in places like coronary or carotid arteries)

7

Why don't platelets just make more thromboxane?

They don't have a nucleus so they are unable to make more. Once you have it commited and already programmed

8

RBCS live how long

100 days

9

How long to platelets live?

About a week
3-10 days

10

What is the effect of having prostaglandins blocked?

Inflammation decreased
Nerve endings' thresholds for pain is increased
Anterior pituitary's thermostat is reset at a lower level (hence the aspirin's antipyretic effect)

11

What are the four major clinical applications for aspirin?

Antiplatelet
Antiarthritic
Reduce inflammation
Antipyritic

12

Aspirin Side Effects

Bleeding (Hemorrhagic strokes)
GI (such as gastric ulcers)
Kidney damage

13

What does aspirin help prevent?

TIAs
Embolic strokes

14

At what dose of aspirin does complete platelet inactivation occur?

160 mg

15

Why does aspirin have GI effects (such as gastric ulcers)?

PGI2 prevents gastric parietal cells from secreting HCL
PGE2 and PGF2-alpha cause the stomach and SI to create surface-protective mucus

Aspirin thins the layer of slime becuase it produces more acid and stomach is exposed to the effects of the acid

16

Why don't "coated" and "enteric" acid actually accomplish much?

GI effects occur on cellular biochemical level

17

Why does aspirin have a kidney damaging side effect?

Prostaglandins are largely responsible for maintaing adequate renal blood flow; by blocking prostaglandin synthesis salts and fluid start to be retained, K+ isn't excreted properly and the kidneys are scarred "Interstitialneprhritis"

18

What does PGF2-alpha do?

Massive uterine contractions

19

How is aspirin cleared?

Conjugated by the liver, cleared by the kidneys

20

What is the half-life of aspirin?

3.5 hours

21

What happens to the half-life of aspirin as higher doses are given?

Conjugation stage is very saturable
Higher doses over several days the half-life increase 4-5x; increased half-life dramatically increases renal toxicity causing a vicious cycle

22

How are Thienopyidines like and unlike aspirin?

Like aspirin: Block platelet aggregation
Unlike aspirin: different MOA

23

What are some examples of Thienopyridines?

Ticlopidine (Ticlid)
Clopidogrel (Plavix)
Prasugrel (Effient)

24

How do Thienopyridines work?

Irreversibly inhibit the ADP pathway of platelets
Blocks platelets GP IIb/IIA receptors
Affected plts cant bind to each other or fibrinogen

25

When is Ticlopidine (Ticlid) approved for use?

Prevention of TIAs and strokes
With aspirin post-stent placement to prevent thrombi formation

26

What is the black box warning for Ticlopidine (Ticlid)?

Hematological disorders:
Aplastic anemia
Neutropenia
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

27

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

Rash; platelets get used up, purple blotches because of the thrombi

28

Clopidogrel (Plavix) Use

used for more cardiac "issues" (MI prevention, ACS, post-PTCA) than Ticlopidine (Ticlid)

29

How does Clopidogrel (Plavix) compare to Ticlopidine (Ticlid)?

Like it, but less side effects
Although thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpurea can still occur

30

Prasugrel (Effient) Good and Bad news

Good news: more effective in treating thrombotic-related events than other thienopyridines

bad news: Black box warning for hemorrhagic stroke, excessive hemorrhage, and negative sequelae resulting form sudden discontination from Prasugrel tx

31

What is used to monitor antiplatelet therapy?

TEG

32

What is the actual clinical response to antiplatelet therapies?

varies wildly

33

What drugs are Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockers?

Abciximab (Reopro)
Eptifibatide (Integrilin)
Tirofiban (Aggrastat)

34

How are Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockers administered?

All given parenterally

35

What are Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockers used extensively for?

ACS and in cath labs to make your life more miserable when they finally decide to send the pt to surgery

36

How does Dipyridamole (Persantine) work and what is it used for?

Primarily used as a coronary vasodilator
Blocks cAMP
After a chain of thromboxane A2 synthesis is blocked
(No prostaglandin effect)

37

cAMP

ubiquitous intracellular messenger chemical derived form that ubiquitous cellular energy currency ATP

38

What is Dypyridamole (Persantine) usually administered with?

Rarely used by itself
Usually as adjunt with warfarin (coumadin) or aspirin for anticoagulation post-prosthetic heart valve implanation or for a-fib

39

What are dextrans?

Heavily-branched complex glucose-based polymers

40

Who discovered Dextrans?

Louis Pasteur as a component of wine

41

What are Dextrans used as?

Volume exanders, particularly when albumin is available
Pump prime protocol maybe
Anti-thrombotic functions (ill-defined)

42

One gram of Dextran binds with how much water?

20-25 ml of H20

43

What are the two kinds of Dextrans?

Dextran 70 (Macrodex)
Dextran 40 (Rheomacrodex)

44

How are Dextrans administered?

Parenterally

45

How does Dextran 70 compare to Dextran 40?

Dextran 70 has somewhat greater osmotic capabilities than Dextran 40?

46

How are both kinds of Dextran excreted?

By kidneys over several hours and the rest metabolized

47

What does Dextran do?

Binds RBCs, platelets and vascular endothelium making them all less "sticky"
Decreases FV, VIII, and IX functionality
clots formed in the presence of dextrans are "less sturdy" and more easily lysed

48

What are some concerns and side effects with Dextrans?

1. Intra-op and post-op bleeding
2. Volume overload, particularly in heart failure and anuric renal failure patients**
3. Anaphylaxis (within minutes)

49

What is the max Dextran dose?

2g/kg (20ml/kg)

50

How does Hespan compare to Dextran?

Made with a mixture of starch polymers instead of glucose polymers; volume expander like Dextran; cleared similarly but has real tendency to hang around

51

What factors does Hespan effect?

Reduces Factor VIII casing elevated aPTT values

52

What is Hespan usage associated with?

Acute renal failure
coagulopathies
anaphylaxis

53

How long is Hespan found in the plasma?

Months after administration

54

What is the max daily dose for Hespan?

20ml/kg; but this seems to be more dogma than evidence based

55

What are some thrombolytic drugs?

Ateplase/tPA (Activase)
Reteplase (Retavase)
Streptokinase (Streptase)
Urokinase (Kinlytic)

56

When do perfusionists give thrombolytics?

Perfusionists will never give these particularly on bypass

57

How do thrombolytics work?

These drugs actually dissolve ("lyse") clots that are already present in the critter

58

What is Streptokinase (Streptase) and what does it do?

Not really an enzyme, but it attaches to plasminogen and this complex acts to convert plasminogen into plasma

this complex also destroys fibrinogen and Factors V and VII

Made from bugs

59

What is Streptokinase (Streptase) approved for?

Pulmonary emboli, DVTs, AMIs and thrombosed shunts

60

What is the half life of Streptokinase (Streptase)

<30 minute half life

61

When is Streptokinase (Streptase) given?

Within 4 hours of an MI via slow infusion

62

How is Streptokinase (Streptase) monitored?

Thrombin Time (TT)

63

What do Urokinase (Kinlytic) do?

Directly converts plasminogen into plasma to dissolve clots

64

What is the half-life of Urokinase (Kinlytic)?

20 minutes

65

What is Urokinase (Kinlytic) approved for?

Use in PE

66

What is Urokinase (Kinlytic) made from?

Urine

67

What do certain malignant tumors produce and how does it work?

Urokinase (kinlytic) to help "invade" tissues
Mesupron acts as a uPA inhibitor
non-cytotoxic chemotherapeutic effects

68

What is Alteplase/tPA (Activase) and how does it work?

Naturally occuring enzyme form human cancer cells, tPAs selectively and directly binds with plasminogen that is bound to fibrin (as in a clot)

In low doses, free plasminogen is hardly affected but bound fibrinogen is selectively targeted so you get more clot lysis and less diffuse hemorrhagic problems as compared to streptokinase

69

What is Alteplase/tPA (Activase) used for?

aMIs
Thrombotic strokes
PE

70

What is the half life of Alteplase/tPA (Activase)?

5-30 minutes

71

What is Reteplase (Retavase)?

A synthetic close relative of tPA
Cheaper than tPA
Less fibrin-specific than tPA

72

What is antithrombin?

Antithrombin (AT) is a small protein made in the liver

73

What is the half-life of antithrombin?

0.5-3 days

74

What is antithrombin referred to as?

Antithrombin III (ATIII)

75

What does ATIII work with to effect anticoagulation?

Heparin

76

What does normal ATIII have an effect on?

Thrombin and Factors IXa and Xa; that effect is multipled by thousands to millions of times when combined with heparin

77

What are the two types of antithrombin available?

1. Thrombate (Made from pooled human plasma)
2. Atryn (Made form milk genetically modified goats)

78

Atryn vs Thrombate

Atryn is 40% cheaper to use than thrombate
Atryn's half life is 9 hours/ thrombates 3 days
Atryn must be refrigerated, thrombate room temp

79

Recent perfusion trend is toward using which antithrombin?

Away from thrombate and more toward atryn

80

What is ATIII used to treat?

Tx of acquired or congenital ATIII deficiency