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Flashcards in Pharm Deck (47):
1

majority of drug penetration through the stratum corneum occurs through the inter/transcellular route

intercellular

2

intercellular entrance of drugs through the stratum corneum normally allows __ _ molecules to diffuse. ___ in this layer are highly hydrophobic and can act as a ___

small hydrophobic
lipids
reservoir for lipid soluble drugs

3

rate of absorption/flux of a drug to the skin is governed by ___ which =

Fick's law
J =KpCv - permeability coefficient x concn of drug in vehicle
Kp = (diffusion coefficient x partition coeff) / length of diffusion pathway

4

In relation to topical drug absorption Km =

equilibrium of the drug in the stratum corneum relative to its solubility in the vehicle

5

lipophilic drug in a lipophilic base = ___ absorption

modest - drug prefers to stay in vehicle

6

Lipophilic drug in a hydrophilic base = ___ absorption

large amount of absorption
lots in circulation

7

Hydrophilic drug in hydrophilic base = ___ absorption

negligible

8

hydrophilic drug in lipophilic base = ___ absorption

limited

9

___ in a drug's vehicle can enhance solubility and increase absorption

excipient

10

_____ in transdermal patch increases duration of drug absorption and can provide steady state delivery because __

excess non-dissolved drug
dissolved drug that is used up is replaced by undissolved drug

11

Physical and chemical factors that increase partitioning of a topical drug

hydrate skin by occlusion ( cream/clingfilm etc)
excipients increase hydrophobic drugs solubility

12

topical steroids diffuse across the ___ and combine with __ in cytoplasm which cause ___ to disocciate to activate their receptor that enters the nucleus via ___. receptor molecules assemble into ___ and bind to __ which turn transcription on/off

plasma membrane
GRalpha nuclear receptors
inhibitory heat shock protein
importins
homodimers
GRE (glucocorticoid response elements)

13

most suitable drug characteristics for transdermal delivery

low molecular weight
moderately lipophilic
potent
relatively brief t1/2

14

a semisolid emulsion of oil in water with emulsifier and preservative

cream

15

pros of using cream as a drug base

high H20 content
non-greasy
cool skin

16

semi-solid oil/grease with no preservative

ointment

17

properties of ointment as a drug base

occlusive and emollient, restrict transepidermal H2O loss
BUT are greasy

18

suspension/solution of drug in liquid

lotion

19

lotions are used in __/___ areas

scalp/hairy areas

20

thickened aqueous lotion with high molecular wt polymers

gel

21

gels are for _+_+_ areas

scalp, hairy areas and face

22

drug base that is semi-solid with fine powdery material

paste

23

characteristics of a paste as a drug base

stiff, greasy, difficult to apply
protective, occlusive, hydrating

24

Type of topical therapy that rehydrates epidermis in dry/scaly conditions

emollient

25

mild topical corticosteroid

1% hydrocortisone

26

moderate topical corticosteroid

modrasone/ clobetasone Butyrate 0.05%

27

potent topical corticosteroid

mometasone/betamethasone valerate 0.1%

28

v. potent topical corticosteroid

clobetasol proprionate 0.05%

29

indications for topial corticosteroids

eczema
psoriasis
lichen planus
keloid scar

30

amount of topical corticosteroids for whole body

20-30g

31

side effects of corticosteroids =

thin skin
purpura
striae
rosacea
fixed telangiectasia
perioral dermatitis
worsen/mask infections
rebound flare

32

examples of antiseptics
indications =

hibitane, pompholyx, savlon
recurrent infections, wound irrigation

33

topical antibiotics used for acne

clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline

34

topical abx for rosacea

metronidazole

35

topical abx for impetigo

mupirocin, fusidic acid

36

topical antifungal for candida/thrush

nystatin, clotrimazole

37

topical antifungals for ringworm/dermatophytes

clotrimazole, terbinafine cream

38

topical antifungal for pityriasis versicolour

ketoconazole

39

antipruritics examples

menthol
capsaicin
camphor/phenol (for pruritis ani) crotamiton

40

keratolytics indications:

hyperkeratotic eczema, psoriasis, corns and calluses, plaques in scalp and viral warts

41

keratolytic drug example

salicylic acid 10-40%

42

topical treatments for psoriasis =

emollients
topical steroids
keratolytic
coal tar
vit D analogue
dithranol

43

imiquimod is an immune modulator which has anti __+__ effects
indications =

anti-viral and tumour
genital warts, superficial BCC, solar keratoses, lentigo maligna, Bowen's, verrucae

44

suppress lymphocyte activation and can be used in kids for atopic eczema to spare steroid use

calcineurin inhibitors ( tacrolimus, pimecrolimus)

45

1st line Rx in plaque psoriasis

topical steroids, vit D analogues, coal tar, dithranol

46

2nd line Rx in plaque psoriasis

phototherapy +/- ciclosporin/methotraxate/acitretin

47

3rd line Rx in plaque psoriasis

biological agents eg. anti TNF - adalimumab
anti IL12-23 monoclonal Ig