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Flashcards in Skin Infections Deck (106):
1

HPV thickens the ____ layer
Causes ____ to be stimulated

Prickle cell layer
Keratin production stimulated

2

virulence factor that allows organism to bind to host

adhesin

3

virulence factor that allows organism to avoid host defences

impedin

4

virulence factor that causes direct host damage

aggressin

5

Skin microbiota = (8)

Staph coag -ve + aureus
dipheroids
Strep spp
bacillus spp
malassezia furfur
occasionally mycobacteria

6

staph infections of skin and mucous membranes caused by

staph epidermidis

7

staph infections of anterior nares and perineum caused by

staph aureus

8

examples of adhesins

fibrinogen binding (CIfA/B)
collagen binding (CNA)

9

impedin examples

Protein A
superantigens
alpha toxin and PVL
capsule
coagulase

10

TSST-1 stands for ___ it is a ___
Causes _+_+_+_ in 48hrs

Toxic shock syndrome Toxin - superantigen of Staph aureus
high fever, v+d, sore throat, myalgia

11

Staph food poisoning is caused by a ___ and causes v+D within __

enterotoxin
1-5hrs

12

Staph aureus infection that often affects neonates - face, groin and axilla
___ toxins target DG-1

Scalded skin syndrome
exfoliatin

13

Superantigens bind directly to ___ causing a massive release of ___

MHCII
cytokines

14

Characteristics of Toxic Shock

39* fever
diffuse macular rash and desquamation "sunburn"
hypotensive
>=3 organs involved

15

Toxin that has a specific toxicity for leukocytes, found in 1-2% of clinical Staph strains

PVL (Panton Valentine Leukocidin)

16

PVL is associated with severe skin infections such as _+_+_
the alpha toxin that is linked with CA-MRSA is responsible for _+_

sepsis, nec fasc, recurrent furunucleosis
necrotising pneumonia, contagious severe skin infections

17

Necrotising pneumonia characteristics

flu like syndrome precedes
haemorrhagic
rapid progression
ARD
refractory hypoxaemia
much reduced pulm function
multiorgan failure despite antibiotics

18

severe invasive M protein antigen subtypes of Strep pyogenes

3+18

19

Superficial type of cellulitis usually in keratin layer that is usually on the face and highly contagious

impetigo

20

erysipelas =

localised cellulitis that leads to fevers rigor and nausea

21

TSLS stands for __
Caused by ___ from ___
__+__ most common toxin

Toxic shock like syndrome
exotoxin from strep pyogenes
SpeA+C

22

TSLS is an ___ disease caused by __
TSS is a ___ caused by __

invasive = strep pyogenes
localised with no bacteraemia = Staph aureus

23

investigation for fungal infections =

skin scraping

24

suspect fungal infection if lesions are:

epidermal, asymmetrical, flaky, in warm and moist areas, red, scaly

25

blue tub swab is for

bacterial swabs

26

suspect bacterial cause of skin infection if:

red confluent pus, tight pain, itchy, hot, swollen, weepy

27

treatment for cellulitis =

flucloxacillin
doxycycline if allergic

28

red tub swab is for

viral swabs

29

suspect viral cause of skin infection if:

electrical shock/Hypersensitivity pain, bluer red, blisters/vesicles/ulcers

30

management of mulluscum infection =

time - lesions disappear on their own

31

gram positive cocci in clusters, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic =

Staph spp.

32

staph that is coagulative +ve and golden culture

S. aureus

33

enzyme that makes S. aureus distinguishable

coagulase

34

staph species that causes infections of implanted artificial material =

epidermidis

35

S. saprophyticus cause __

UTI in women of child bearing age

36

gram +ve cocci in chains, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic

Strep spp.

37

Strep spp
complete haemolysis =
toxin that damages tissues =
Group A cause _+_
Group B cause __

beta
haemolysin
A = throat and skin infections
B = neonatal meningitis

38

Strep spp.
partial haemolysis =
2 egs

alpha
pneumoniae
viridans - commensal of throat, mouth and vagina - rarely cause infection

39

Strep spp.
no haemolysis =
eg. and infection it can cause

gamma
enterococcus spp
bowel commensals that may cause UTI

40

Signs of Staph aureus skin infections

furuncle/boil
carbuncle
infected cuts
cellulitis
infected eczema
impetigo
SSSS

41

Strep pyogenes skin infections

infected eczema
impetigo
cellulitis
erysipelas ( acute = large red raised patches on skin)
nec fas

42

bacterial infection spreading across fascial planes that causes rapid tissue destruction. Isn't much to look at but extremely painful

necrotising fasciitis

43

type 1 necrotising fasciitis is caused by

mixed anaerobes and coliforms - usually post op abdomen

44

type 2 necrotising fasciitis is caused by

Strep pyogenes

45

tinea =

ringworm - fungal infection

46

fungal infections infect the ___ only
cause increased ___
inflammatory responses in the dermis cause _+_ to be invaded
lesions grow ___ and heal in __ =

keratinised tissue
epidermal turnover
hair follicles and shafts
grow outward heal in middle = ring

47

most fungal infections are spread __

anthropophilically

48

organisms that cause skin fungal infections (3)

trichophyton rubum (human human, 70% of lab isolates)
trichophyton mentagraphytes (human human, >20% )
microsporum canis (dog cat human)

49

investigations for fungal skin infections

woods lamp
appearance on examination
scrapping/clipping/hair - 2wk to get back

50

small fungal infection treatments =

clotrimazole (canestan) cream or amordfine (topical nail paint)

51

extensive fungal skin infection/scalp/nail treatment

PO terbinafine (hepatotoxic and stay on 6m-12m), itraconazole

52

treatment for candida

clotrimazole cream, PO fluconazole

53

infection of the skin folds =

intertrigo

54

organism that causes scabies =
sign and sympt =
treatments =

sarcoptes scabiei
very itchy rash on finger webs, wrists and genitals
malathion lotion overnight and benzyl benzoate (not in kids)

55

pediculosis =

lice

56

treatment for lice -

malathion lotion

57

3 infectious diseases that need isolated

MRSA
strep. pyogenes
scabies

58

chickenpox is caused by ___ virus
progression of lesions =
centripedal and inflamed skin fever and itch

varicella zoster
macule>papule>vesicle>scab

59

type of vaccine that the chickenpox vaccine is

live attenuated

60

maternal chickenpox can cause

neonatal VZV

61

progression of shingles presentation on the skin:

tingling/pain>erythema>vesicles>crust
neuralgic pain

62

if shingles pain lasts for more than 4 wk ( in elderly/trigeminal distribution) =

post herpetic neuralgia

63

shingles affecting eye region and forehead on one side nerve =

ophthalmic V (CN V1)

64

if shingles affects below eye and cheek on one side of face nerve=

maxillary CNV2

65

shingles affects beard region on one side of face nerve =

CNV3 mandibulary

66

adults shingles tends to be in nerves ___+___+ maybe __
in kids it is more likely to be in __+___

adults: lower thoracic, upper lumbar, maybe CNV
kids = sacral or cervical nerve dermatomes

67

Ramsay Hunt syndrome =
characteristics =

genculate/otic herpes zoster
vesicles and pain in auditory canal and throat
facial palsy
irritation of CNVIII => deafness and vertigo tinnitus

68

Primary gingivostomatitis is caused by ___
age =
characteristics =
lasts =

herpes simplex
pre-schoolers
extensive ulceration in and around mouth
1 wk ish

69

recurrence of herpes simplex (gingivostomatitis) characteristics -

blistering rash at vermillion border
possibly herpetic whitlow or eczema herpeticum

70

abscess of finger caused by herpes simplex =

herpetic whitlow

71

HSV type 1/2 is the main cause or oral lesions and causes half of genital herpes, may lead to encephalitis

1

72

HSV type 1/2 rarely causes oral lesions, half of genital herpes, may cause encephalitis or disseminated infection

2

73

HSV and VZV treatment =
It does/doesn's eliminate the latent virus

aciclovir
doesnt

74

erythema multiforme lesions =
3 potential triggers =

target lesions with erythema
drugs, HSV, mycoplasma pneumoniae

75

type of lesion seen with molluscum contagiosum

fleshy, firm, umbilicated pearlescent nodules - 1-2mm diameter

76

HPV types most common in warts and verrucae

1 to 4

77

HPV types most associated with genital warts

6 and 11

78

HPV types associated with cervical cancer

16 and 18

79

herpangina characteristic appearance =
caused by:
treatment =

blistering rash on back of mouth
enteroviruses eg coxsachie or echovirus
self-limiting

80

Hand foot and mouth is caused by ____

enteroviruses especially coxsackie

81

erythema infectiosum/slapped cheek disease is caused by :

erythrovirus/parvovirus B19

82

Complications of parvovirus B19 infection

spontaneous abortion (foetal hydrops precursor)
aplastic crisis (esp if thalassaemia, sickle cell, hereditary spherocytosis)
chronic anaemia in IS

83

progression of appearance of parvovirus B19 infection

slapped cheek rash > facial rash fades and lacy macular body rash appears + acute arthritis esp in wrists

84

Diagnosis of Parvovirus B19 infection =

IgM parvovirus B19 test

85

tests to diagnose rubella =

IgM and IgG tests

86

signs and symptoms of rubella =

fever, sore throat, arthralgia, blanching rash on face neck trunk and arms, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy

87

after fever and pain of rubella ____ develops and disappears spontaneously in __

oral pain with petechial haemorrhages of soft palate
2 days

88

Orf is a ___ infection from ___ aka __
characteristic appearance =
treatment=

viral
sheep
scabby mouth
firm fleshy nodule on farmer's hands
self-limiting

89

chancre =

primary syphilis
painless ulcer at site of entry

90

2ndry syphilis =

red body rash, prominent on soles and palms, mucous membrane snail track ulcers

91

tertiary syphilis =

CNS CVS, granuloma

92

treponema pallidum is a bacteria that causes ___

syphilis

93

treatment for syphilis =

penicillin injections

94

borrelia burgdoferi bacterium causes:

lyme disease

95

early presentation sign of lyme disease

erythema migrans (bull's eye)

96

treatment for lyme disease

`doxycycline/ amoxicillin

97

some signs of measles

fever, cough and rhinorrhea after travel
widespread exanthem - head neck shoulders w cephalocaudal spread
small white papules bilaterally buccal mucosa
conjunctivitis

98

2 complications of Zika

Guillain Barre
microcephaly

99

symptoms of zika

mild fever
maculopapular rash
headaches arthralgia
non-purulent conjunctivitis

100

can athletes foot enter the bloodstream?

no - specialised to skin

101

2 common orgs that cause impetigo

staph aureus
strep pyogenes

102

most common org to infect eczema

staph aureus

103

virus that can infect eczema

herpes simplex

104

why do kids get lots of warts?

immature T cells

105

HPV types that cause warts

1-4

106

treatment for shingles

aciclovir 800mg - dont wait for swab result just start if facial distribution