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Flashcards in Pharm One Liners 2014 Deck (175)
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1

TIme it takes for amount of drug to fall to half it's value, constant in first order kinetics

Half-life (T1/2)

2

Barbiturates, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampin all do this

Induce CYP450

3

Cimentidine, ketoconazole, isoniazide, and grape fruit all do this

Inhibit CYP450

4

Ability of a drug to produce the maximal biologic effect

Efficacy

5

MOA uses intracellular receptors

Steroid and hormones

6

MOA uses transmembrane receptors

Insulin, EGF, TGF-beta , PDGF, ANP

7

Antidote used for organophosphate/anticholinesterase poisoning
**

Atropine, pralidoxime ( 2-PAM)

8

Antidote used for acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning

N-acetylcysteine

9

Antidote used for heparin toxicity
**

Protamine Sulfate

10

Antidote used for warfarin toxicity

Vit K and fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

11

Antidote for tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), streptokinase
**

aminocaproic acid

12

Antidote used for opioid toxicity

Naloxone (IV), Naltrexone (PO)

13

Antidote used for benzodiazepine toxicity

Flumazenil

14

Interaction with this drug requires a dose reduction of 6-MP

Allopurinol

15

May protect against doxyrubicin toxicity by chelating iron

Dexrazoxane

16

Blows DNA (breaks it), liniting SE is pulmonery fibrosis

Bleomycin

17

Binds tubulin and prevents the disassembly of microtubles during the M phase of the cell cycle inducing mitotic arrest
**

Paclitaxel (taxol)

18

anti-estrogen used for estrogen receptor + breast cancer

Tamoxifen

19

Anti-emetics used in association with anti-cancer drugs that are 5-HT3 (serotonin receptor subtype) antagonist

Odansetron, granisetron, dolasetron, and palonsetron

20

Hormone inhibiting prolactin release

Dopamine

21

ACTH analogue used for the diagnosis of patients w/ corticosteroid abnormalities
**

Cosyntropin

22

Synthetic analog of ADH hormone used for diabetes insipidous and nocturnal anuresis

Desmopressin (DDAVP)

23

DOC for hypothyroidism
**

Levothyroxine (T4)

24

Thioamide less likely to cross placenta, inhibits peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 in high doses, and indicated for pregnant women in 1st trimester

propylthiouracil (ptu)

25

Propylthiouracil (PTU) mechanism of action

Inhibits thyroid peroxidase

26

Some side effects of corticosteroids

Hyperglycemia, Osteopenia, impaired wound healing, inc. risk of infection, inc. appetite, HTN, edema, PUD, euphoria, psychosis

27

Diuretic used to antagonize aldosterone receptors

Spironolactone

28

Common SE of spironolactone
**

Gynecomastia and hyperkalemia

29

Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used for prevention of osteoporosis and currently being tested for treatment of breast cancer (Stars study) **

Raloxifene

30

Non-steroidal estrogen agonist causes clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in daughters of women who used it during pregnancy

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

31

Converted to more active form DHT by 5 alpha-reductase

Testosterone

32

Product of proinsulin cleavage used to assess insulin production

C-peptide

33


Long acting insulin



NPH


34

Amino acid derivative for treatment of Type II diabetes

Natglinide

35

Increase bone density, also being tested for breast CA tx.
**

Raloxifene (SERM-selective estrogen receptor modulator)

36

Used intranasally and decreases bone resorption

Calcitonin (salmon prep)

37

Drug that causes contraction of the uterus

Oxytocin

38

Distribution of histamine receptors H1, H2, and H3

Smooth muscle and mast cells; stomach, heart, and mast cells; nerve endings, CNS respectively

39

1st generation antihistamine that is highly sedating
**

Diphenhydramine

40

2nd generation antihistamines

Fexofenadine, loratadine, and cetirizine

41

H2 blocker that causes the most interactions with other drugs

Cimetidine

42

5HT-1D/1B agonist used for migraine headaches
**

Sumatriptan, naratriptan, and rizatriptan

43

Agents for reduction of postpartum bleeding
**

Oxytocin and ergovine

44

Agents used in treatment of carcinoid tumor
**

Cyproheptadine

45

5HT-3 antagonist used in chemotherapeutic induced
emesis
***

Ondansetron, granisetron, dolasetron and palonosetron

46

Ergot alkaloid used as an illicit drug

LSD

47

Dopamine agonist used in hyperprolactinemia

Bromocripton

48

Mediator of tissue pain, edema, inactivated by ACE, and may be a contributing factor to the development of angioedema

Bradykinin

49

Drug causing depletion of substance P (vasodilator)

Caspaicin

50

Prostaglandins that cause abortions

Prostaglandin E1 (misoprostol), PGE2, and PGF2alpha

51

Inhibitor of lipoxygenase

Zileuton

52

Used in pediatrics to maintain patency of ductus arteriosis

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

53

Prostaglandin used as 2nd line treatment of erectile dysfunction

PGE1 (Alprostadil)

54

MOA and effect of nitric oxide

Stimulates cGMP which leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation

55

Muscarinic antagonist used in COPD

Ipratropium, tiotropium

56

MOA action of cromolyn

Blocks opening of Cl channels to prevent mast cell degranulation

57

SE of long term (>5 days) corticosteroid therapy and remedy

Adrenal suppression and weaning slowly, respectively

58

MOA of fluoroquinolones
**

Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV

59

Drug used for MRSA

Vancomycin

60

Vancomycin MOA
**

Binds D-Ala-D-Ala on murein monomers and prevent polymerization of the murein monomers

61

Meningitis prophylaxis in exposed patients

Rifampin

62

Technique used to diagnose perianal itching, and the drug used to treat it

Scotch tape technique and mebendazole

63

MOA of sulfonamides

Inhibit dihydropteroate synthase

64

Cheap wide spectrum antibiotic DOC of otitis media

Amoxicillin

65

Drug of choice for tx of pseudomembranous colitis
**

Metronidazole

66

Anemia caused by trimethoprim

Megaloblastic anemia

67

DOC for giardia, bacterial vaginosis, pseudomembranous colitis, and trichomonas

Metronidazole

68

Treatment for TB patients

(RIPE)
Rifamipin
Isoniozide
Pyrazinamide
Ethambutol

69

Common side effect of Rifampin

Orange urine discoloration

70

DOC for influenza A and B

Oseltmivir and Zanamivir

71

DOC for RSV

Ribavirin

72

HIV antiviral class known to have severe drug interactions by causing inhibition of metabolism

Protease Inhibitors

73

DOC for N. gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

74

DOC for herpes and its MOA

Acyclovir; activates thymidine kinase

75

Anti-bacterials that cause hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients

Sulfonamides

76

Reason benzos are used cautiously in pregnancy

Ability to cross the placenta

77

Antidote to benzodiazepine overdose (antagonist that reverses the CNS effects)

Flumazenil

78

Agent that is metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS)

Ethanol

79

System that increases in activity with chronic exposure and may contribute to tolerance

Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)

80

The most common neurologic abnormality in chronic alcoholics

Peripheral neuropathy (also excessive alcohol use is associated with HTN, anemia, and MI)

81

Drugs of choice for generalized tonic-clonic and partial seizures

Valproic acid, Phenytoin, and carbamezapine

82

DOC for absence seizures

Ethosuxamide and Valproic Acid

83

DOC for myoclonic seizures

Valproic acid

84

Anti-seizure drugs used also for pain of neuropathic orgin

Gabapentin

85

SE of phenytoin

Gingival hyperplasia, nystagmus, diplopia, and ataxia

86

DOC for malignant hyperthermia that may be caused by use of halogenated anesthetics

Dantrolene

87

Benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, it accelerates recovery from benzodiazepine overdose

Flamazenil

88

Opioid associated with awareness during surgery and post-operative recall, but still used for high-risk cardiovascular surgeries

Fentanyl

89

DOC for malignant hyperthermia by acting on the sarcoplasmic reticulum or skeletal muscle

Dantrolene

90

Antipsychotics, reserpine at high doses, and MPTP (by-product of illicit meperidine analog) and is irreversible

Drug Induced PArkinsonism

91

Side effects occuring in antipsychotics that block dopamine

EPS, hyperprolactinemia, amennorrhea, galactorrhea, neuroleptic malignant syndrome

92

Antipsychotics having the strongest autonomic effects

Chlorpromazine or Thioridazine

93

Agent with greater affinity to 5HT2A receptor; reserved for refractory schizophrenia, and can cause weight gain and agranulocytosis

Clozapine

94


Anti-psychotics shown not to cause tardive dyskinesia



Clozapine and quietiapine


95

Patients being treated with lithium, who are dehydrated, or taking diuretics concurrently, could develop

Lithium toxicity; lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidous

96

DOC for bipolar affective disorder

Lithium

97

SE of lithium

Tremor, sedation, ataxia, aphasia, thyroid enlargement, and reversible diabetes insipidus

98

TCA used in chronic pain, enuresis, and OCD

Imipramine

99

Unicyclic antidepressant least likely to affect sexual performance, used for management of nicotine withdrawal, SE's include dizziness, dry mouth, aggravation of psychosis, and seizures

Bupropion

100

Activation of these receptors close Ca2+ ion channels to inhibit neurotransmitter release and pain transmission

Presynaptic mu, delta, and kappa R

101

Tolerance to all effects of opioid agonists can develop except

Miosis, convulsions, and constipation

102

Opioid used in the management of withdrawal states

Methadone

103

Opioid available trans-dermally

Fentanyl

104

Opioid that can be given PO, by epidural, and IV, which helps to relieve the dyspnea of pulmonary edema

Morphine

105


Moderate opioid agonists



Codeine, hydrocodone, and oxycodone


106

Opioid antagonist that is given IV and had short DOA

Naloxone

107

Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs

Naltrexone

108

Opioid antagonist that is given orally in alcohol dependency programs

Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and pupillary responses

109

This agent may cause more severe, rapid and intense symptoms (abstinence syndrome) to a recovering addict

Naloxone

110

Date Rape Drug

Flunitrazepam (rohpnol)

111

These agents are CNS depressants

Ethanol, Barbiturates, and Benzodiazepines

112

Treatments available for nicotine addiction

Patches, gum, nasal spray, and bupropion

113

THC is active ingredient, SE's include impairment of judgment, and reflexes, decreases in blood pressure and psychomotor performance occur

Marijuana

114

This agent has greater affinity for muscarinic receptors and used for postoperative and neurogenic ileus and urinary retention

Bethanechol

115

Toxicity of cholinergics

DUMBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle and CNS, lacrimation, salivation, and sweating)

116

Treatment of motion sickness

Scopolamine

117

Produce mydriasis and cycloplegia

Atropine and other anti-muscarinic agents

118

Mnemonic for beta receptors

You have 1 heart (Beta 1) and 2 lungs (Beta 2)

119

These agents decrease blood flow or increase blood pressure, are local decongestant, and used in therapy of spinal shock (temporary maintenance of blood pressure which may help maintain perfusion)

Alpha1 agonists

120

Alpha 1 agonist toxicity

hypertension

121

Selective Alpha 1 blocker used for hypertension, BPH, may cause first dose orthostatic hypotension

Prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin

122

Selective B1 Receptor blockers that may be useful in treating cardiac conditions in patients with asthma

Acebutolol, atenolol, esmolol, metoprolol

123

This beta blocker lacks local anesthetic activity (decreases protective reflexes and increases the risk of corneal ulceration) and used in treating glaucoma

Timolol

124

These Beta blockers decrease aqueous secretion

Timolol (nonselective); betaxolol (selective)

125

Captopril and enalapril (-OPRIL ending) are

ACE inhibitors

126

SE of ACE inhibitors

dry cough and hyperkalemia

127

ACE inhibitors are contraindicated in

Pregnancy and with hyperkalemia

128

Losartan and valsartan block

AT1 receptors

129

Side effect associated with ACEI but not ARBs

dry cough

130

SE of CCB

Constipation, edema, head ache

131

Reduce heart rate, contractility, and O2 demand

Beta blockers

132

Cardioselective Beta 1-blockers

Atenolol, acebutolol, and metoprolol

133

SE of beta blockers

Bradycardia, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, decrease in HDL, and increase in Triglycerols (TG)

134

Alpha 1selective blockers

Prazosin, terazosin and doxazosin (-AZOSIN ending)

135

A1a-selective blocker used for BPH

Tamulosin (Flomax)

136

SE of alpha blockers

Orthostatic hypotension (especially with first dose) and reflex tachycardia

137

Methyldopa is contraindicated in

Geriatrics due to its CNS (depression) effects

138

SE of hydralazine

Lupus-like syndrome

139

Diuretic used as prophylactic for mountain sickness and glaucoma

Acetazolamide

140

Side effects of acetazolamide

Paresthesias, alkalization of the urine (which may ppt. Ca salts), hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and encephalopathy in patients with hepatic impairment

141

Site of action of loop diuretics

Thick ascending limb

142

Side effects of loop (furosemide) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and ototoxicity

143

An electrolyte that is lost in the urine by acute treatment with loop diuretics but can be retained by thiazides

Calcium

144

Site of action of thiazide diuretics

Early distal convulated tubule

145

Side effects of thiazide (HCTZ) diuretics

Hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia

146

Mechanism of action of amiloride

Inhibit epithelial sodium channels in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct

147

Diuretic used to treat primary aldosteronism

Spironolactone, eplerenone

148

Side effect of spironolactone

gynecomastia, hyperkalemia, and impotence

149

Diuretic used to reduce intracranial pressure

mannitol

150

MOA of class I A (eg. Procainamide), class IB (eg. Lidocaine), and class IC (eg. Flecainide) antiarrhythmics

Na channel blockers

151

SE of procainamide

Lupus like syndrome

152

Limiting side effect of Quinidine

Prolongs QT interval

153

DOC for management of acute Ventricular arrhythmias

Lidocaine

154

Life threatening cardiac event that prolong QT leads to

Torsades de pointes

155

MOA of sildenafil (Viagra)

Inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, enhancing effects of nitric oxide-activated increases in cGMP

156

MOA of nitrates

Relax vascular smooth muscle, at low doses dilate veins and at high doses dilate arterioles

157

Heparin (PTT) increases activity of

Antithrombin 3

158

Antidote to reverse actions of heparin

Protamine Sulfate

159

SE of Aspirin

GI bleeding

160

MOA of thrombolytics

Lyse thrombi by catalyzing the formation of plasmin which binds fibrin

161

Thrombolytics are used for

PE and DVT

162

Agent for pernicious anemia

Cyanocobalamin (Vit B12)

163

Agent used for megaloblastic anemia (but does NOT reverse neurologic symptoms) and decrease neural tube defects during pregnancy

Folic Acid

164

Agent used for anemias associated with renal failure

Erythropoietin

165

How drug or foods (grapefruit juice) increase statin effect

Inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4

166

Monitoring parameter to obtain before initiation of STATINS

LFT's

167

Decreases liver triglycerol synthesis

Niacin

168

SE of niacin

Cutaneous flushing

169

Fibrates (gemfibrozil) increase activity of

Lipoprotein lipase

170

Agent used for closure of patent ductus arteriosus

Indomethacin

171

Acetaminophen only has what activity

Antipyretic and analgesic activity

172

Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity

N-acetylcysteine

173

DMARDs are slow acting drugs for

Rheumatic disease

174

Agent that inhibits xanthine oxidases and used to treat chronic gout

Allopurinol, febuxostat

175

Readily detected markers that may assist in diagnosis of the cause of a drug overdose

Changes in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration body temperature, sweating, bowel signs, and papillary responses